La Bilbio du Mois: Mai 2015
Dans La Biblio du Mois de Mai: Hépatites, Sepsis & Choc. Notez que C. difficile est à l’honneur dans deux revues du NEJM. Et pour changer: deux études concernant le mémoire du DESAR en IDF et les internes face à la réalité de la simulation
Bonne lecture !
Importance Although retrievable inferior vena cava filters are frequently used in addition to anticoagulation in patients with acute venous thromboembolism, their benefit-risk ratio is unclear.
Objective To evaluate the efficacy and safety of retrievable vena cava filters plus anticoagulation vs anticoagulation alone for preventing pulmonary embolism recurrence in patients presenting with acute pulmonary embolism and a high risk of recurrence.
Design, Setting, and Participants Randomized, open-label, blinded end point trial (PREPIC2) with 6-month follow-up conducted from August 2006 to January 2013. Hospitalized patients with acute, symptomatic pulmonary embolism associated with lower-limb vein thrombosis and at least 1 criterion for severity were assigned to retrievable inferior vena cava filter implantation plus anticoagulation (filter group; n = 200) or anticoagulation alone with no filter implantation (control group; n = 199). Initial hospitalization with ambulatory follow-up occurred in 17 French centers.
Interventions Full-dose anticoagulation for at least 6 months in all patients. Insertion of a retrievable inferior vena cava filter in patients randomized to the filter group. Filter retrieval was planned at 3 months from placement.
Main Outcomes and Measures Primary efficacy outcome was symptomatic recurrent pulmonary embolism at 3 months. Secondary outcomes were recurrent pulmonary embolism at 6 months, symptomatic deep vein thrombosis, major bleeding, death at 3 and 6 months, and filter complications.
Results In the filter group, the filter was successfully inserted in 193 patients and was retrieved as planned in 153 of the 164 patients in whom retrieval was attempted. By 3 months, recurrent pulmonary embolism had occurred in 6 patients (3.0%; all fatal) in the filter group and in 3 patients (1.5%; 2 fatal) in the control group (relative risk with filter, 2.00 [95% CI, 0.51-7.89]; P = .50). Results were similar at 6 months. No difference was observed between the 2 groups regarding the other outcomes. Filter thrombosis occurred in 3 patients.
Conclusions and Relevance Among hospitalized patients with severe acute pulmonary embolism, the use of a retrievable inferior vena cava filter plus anticoagulation compared with anticoagulation alone did not reduce the risk of symptomatic recurrent pulmonary embolism at 3 months. These findings do not support the use of this type of filter in patients who can be treated with anticoagulation.
Administration de spores non toxiques de Clostridium Difficile pour la prévention de la récidive d’une infection à Clostridium Difficile
Importance Clostridium difficile is the most common cause of health care–associated infection in US hospitals. Recurrence occurs in 25% to 30% of patients.
Objective To determine the safety, fecal colonization, recurrence rate, and optimal dosing schedule of nontoxigenic C difficile strain M3 (VP20621; NTCD-M3) for prevention of recurrent C difficile infection (CDI).
Design, Setting, and Participants Phase 2, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-ranging study conducted from June 2011 to June 2013 among 173 patients aged 18 years or older who were diagnosed as having CDI (first episode or first recurrence) and had successfully completed treatment with metronidazole, oral vancomycin, or both at 44 study centers in the United States, Canada, and Europe.
Interventions Patients were randomly assigned to receive 1 of 4 treatments: oral liquid formulation of NTCD-M3, 104 spores/d for 7 days (n = 43), 107 spores/d for 7 days (n = 44), or 107 spores/d for 14 days (n = 42), or placebo for 14 days (n = 44).
Main Outcomes and Measures The primary outcome was safety and tolerability of NTCD-M3 within 7 days of treatment. Exploratory secondary outcomes included fecal colonization with NTCD-M3 from end of study drug through week 6 and CDI recurrence from day 1 through week 6.
Results Among 168 patients who started treatment, 157 completed treatment. One or more treatment-emergent adverse events were reported in 78% of patients receiving NTCD-M3 and 86% of patients receiving placebo. Diarrhea and abdominal pain were reported in 46% and 17% of patients receiving NTCD-M3 and 60% and 33% of placebo patients, respectively. Serious treatment-emergent adverse events were reported in 7% of patients receiving placebo and 3% of all patients who received NTCD-M3. Headache was reported in 10% of patients receiving NTCD-M3 and 2% of placebo patients. Fecal colonization occurred in 69% of NTCD-M3 patients: 71% with 107 spores/d and 63% with 104 spores/d. Recurrence of CDI occurred in 13 (30%) of 43 placebo patients and 14 (11%) of 125 NTCD-M3 patients (odds ratio [OR], 0.28; 95% CI, 0.11-0.69; P = .006); the lowest recurrence was in 2 (5%) of 43 patients receiving 107 spores/d for 7 days (OR, 0.1; 95% CI, 0.0-0.6; P = .01 vs placebo]). Recurrence occurred in 2 (2%) of 86 patients who were colonized vs 12 (31%) of 39 patients who received NTCD-M3 and were not colonized (OR, 0.01; 95% CI, 0.00-0.05; P < .001).
Conclusions and Relevance Among patients with CDI who clinically recovered following treatment with metronidazole or vancomycin, oral administration of spores of NTCD-M3 was well tolerated and appeared to be safe. Nontoxigenic C difficile strain M3 colonized the gastrointestinal tract and significantly reduced CDI recurrence.
BACKGROUND In Canada, cesarean delivery rates have increased substantially over the past decade. Effective, safe strategies are needed to reduce these rates.
METHODS We conducted a cluster-randomized, controlled trial of a multifaceted 1.5-year intervention at 32 hospitals in Quebec. The intervention involved audits of indications for cesarean delivery, provision of feedback to health professionals, and implementation of best practices. The primary outcome was the cesarean delivery rate in the 1-year postintervention period.
RESULTS Among the 184,952 participants, 53,086 women delivered in the year before the intervention and 52,265 women delivered in the year following the intervention. There was a significant but small reduction in the rate of cesarean delivery from the preintervention period to the postintervention period in the intervention group as compared with the control group (change, 22.5% to 21.8% in the intervention group and 23.2% to 23.5% in the control group; odds ratio for incremental change over time, adjusted for hospital and patient characteristics, 0.90; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.80 to 0.99; P=0.04; adjusted risk difference, −1.8%; 95% CI, −3.8 to −0.2). The cesarean delivery rate was significantly reduced among women with low-risk pregnancies (adjusted risk difference, −1.7%; 95% CI, −3.0 to −0.3; P=0.03) but not among those with high-risk pregnancies (P=0.35; P = 0.03 for interaction). The intervention group also had a reduction in major neonatal morbidity as compared with the control group (adjusted risk difference, −0.7%; 95% CI, −1.3 to −0.1; P=0.03) and a smaller increase in minor neonatal morbidity (adjusted risk difference, −1.7%; 95% CI, −2.6 to −0.9; P<0.001). Changes in minor and major maternal morbidity did not differ significantly between the groups.
CONCLUSIONS Audits of indications for cesarean delivery, feedback for health professionals, and implementation of best practices, as compared with usual care, resulted in a significant but small reduction in the rate of cesarean delivery, without adverse effects on maternal or neonatal outcomes. The benefit was driven by the effect of the intervention in low-risk pregnancies.
BACKGROUND Alcoholic hepatitis is a clinical syndrome characterized by jaundice and liver impairment that occurs in patients with a history of heavy and prolonged alcohol use. The short-term mortality among patients with severe disease exceeds 30%. Prednisolone and pentoxifylline are both recommended for the treatment of severe alcoholic hepatitis, but uncertainty about their benefit persists.
METHODS We conducted a multicenter, double-blind, randomized trial with a 2-by-2 factorial design to evaluate the effect of treatment with prednisolone or pentoxifylline. The primary end point was mortality at 28 days. Secondary end points included death or liver transplantation at 90 days and at 1 year. Patients with a clinical diagnosis of alcoholic hepatitis and severe disease were randomly assigned to one of four groups: a group that received a pentoxifylline-matched placebo and a prednisolone-matched placebo, a group that received prednisolone and a pentoxifylline-matched placebo, a group that received pentoxifylline and a prednisolone-matched placebo, or a group that received both prednisolone and pentoxifylline.
RESULTS A total of 1103 patients underwent randomization, and data from 1053 were available for the primary end-point analysis. Mortality at 28 days was 17% (45 of 269 patients) in the placebo–placebo group, 14% (38 of 266 patients) in the prednisolone–placebo group, 19% (50 of 258 patients) in the pentoxifylline–placebo group, and 13% (35 of 260 patients) in the prednisolone–pentoxifylline group. The odds ratio for 28-day mortality with pentoxifylline was 1.07 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.77 to 1.49; P=0.69), and that with prednisolone was 0.72 (95% CI, 0.52 to 1.01; P=0.06). At 90 days and at 1 year, there were no significant between-group differences. Serious infections occurred in 13% of the patients treated with prednisolone versus 7% of those who did not receive prednisolone (P=0.002).
CONCLUSIONS Pentoxifylline did not improve survival in patients with alcoholic hepatitis. Prednisolone was associated with a reduction in 28-day mortality that did not reach significance and with no improvement in outcomes at 90 days or 1 year.
BACKGROUND The consensus definition of severe sepsis requires suspected or proven infection, organ failure, and signs that meet two or more criteria for the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). We aimed to test the sensitivity, face validity, and construct validity of this approach.
METHODS We studied data from patients from 172 intensive care units in Australia and New Zealand from 2000 through 2013. We identified patients with infection and organ failure and categorized them according to whether they had signs meeting two or more SIRS criteria (SIRS-positive severe sepsis) or less than two SIRS criteria (SIRS-negative severe sepsis). We compared their characteristics and outcomes and assessed them for the presence of a step increase in the risk of death at a threshold of two SIRS criteria.
RESULTS Of 1,171,797 patients, a total of 109,663 had infection and organ failure. Among these, 96,385 patients (87.9%) had SIRS-positive severe sepsis and 13,278 (12.1%) had SIRS-negative severe sepsis. Over a period of 14 years, these groups had similar characteristics and changes in mortality (SIRS-positive group: from 36.1% [829 of 2296 patients] to 18.3% [2037 of 11,119], P<0.001; SIRS-negative group: from 27.7% [100 of 361] to 9.3% [122 of 1315], P<0.001). Moreover, this pattern remained similar after adjustment for baseline characteristics (odds ratio in the SIRS-positive group, 0.96; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.96 to 0.97; odds ratio in the SIRS-negative group, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.94 to 0.98; P=0.12 for between-group difference). In the adjusted analysis, mortality increased linearly with each additional SIRS criterion (odds ratio for each additional criterion, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.11 to 1.15; P<0.001) without any transitional increase in risk at a threshold of two SIRS criteria.
CONCLUSIONS The need for two or more SIRS criteria to define severe sepsis excluded one in eight otherwise similar patients with infection, organ failure, and substantial mortality and failed to define a transition point in the risk of death.
Evaluation d’une gestion protocolisée des fluides dans les 24 premières heures d’un choc en réanimationPrecision in fluid management for shock could lead to better clinical outcomes. We evaluated the association of protocol-based fluid management with intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital mortality. We performed an observational study of mechanically ventilated patients admitted directly from our emergency department to the ICU from August 2011 to December 2013, who had circulatory shock in the first 24 h of ICU stay (systolic blood pressure <90 mmHg at ICU admission or lactate >4 mmol/L). Patients with onset of shock beyond 24 h of ICU stay were excluded. Protocol-based fluid management required close physician-nurse cooperation and computerized documentation, checking for fluid response (≥10% arterial pulse pressure or stroke volume increase after two consecutive 250-mL crystalloid boluses), and fluid loading with repeated 500-mL boluses until fluid response became negative. Six hundred twelve mechanically ventilated patients with shock (mean [±SD] age, 63.0 years [16.5]; 252 or 41.2% females; mean Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score, 30.2 [8.8]) were studied. The fluid management protocol was used 455 times for 242 patients (39.5% of 612 patients) within the first 24 h of ICU stay, with 244 (53.6% of 455) positive responses. Adjusted for age, sex, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score, comorbidity, and admission year, protocol use was associated with reduced ICU mortality (odds ratio, 0.60; 95% confidence interval, 0.39–0.94; P = 0.025) but not hospital mortality (odds ratio, 0.82; 95% confidence interval, 0.54–1.23; P = 0.369). Among mechanically ventilated patients with shock within the first 24 h of ICU stay, about half had positive fluid responses. Adherence to protocol-based fluid management was associated with improved ICU survival.
Une analyse pré-hospitalière automatisée des paramètres vitaux pour identifier en amont les hémorragies sévères: une étude de faisabilitéTrauma outcomes are improved by protocols for substantial bleeding, typically activated after physician evaluation at a hospital. Previous analysis suggested that prehospital vital signs contained patterns indicating the presence or absence of substantial bleeding. In an observational study of adults (aged ≥18 years) transported to level I trauma centers by helicopter, we investigated the diagnostic performance of the Automated Processing of the Physiological Registry for Assessment of Injury Severity (APPRAISE) system, a computational platform for real-time analysis of vital signs, for identification of substantial bleeding in trauma patients with explicitly hemorrhagic injuries. We studied 209 subjects prospectively and 646 retrospectively. In our multivariate analysis, prospective performance was not significantly different from retrospective. The APPRAISE system was 76% sensitive for 24-h packed red blood cells of 9 or more units (95% confidence interval, 59% – 89%) and significantly more sensitive (P < 0.05) than any prehospital Shock Index of 1.4 or higher; sensitivity, 59%; initial systolic blood pressure (SBP) less than 110 mmHg, 50%; and any prehospital SBP less than 90 mmHg, 50%. The APPRAISE specificity for 24-h packed red blood cells of 0 units was 87% (88% for any Shock Index ≥1.4, 88% for initial SBP <110 mmHg, and 90% for any prehospital SBP <90 mmHg). Median APPRAISE hemorrhage notification time was 20 min before arrival at the trauma center. In conclusion, APPRAISE identified bleeding before trauma center arrival. En route, this capability could allow medics to focus on direct patient care rather than the monitor and, via advance radio notification, could expedite hospital interventions for patients with substantial blood loss.
Background: During spinal anesthesia for cesarean delivery, phenylephrine can cause reflexive decreases in maternal heart rate and cardiac output. Norepinephrine has weak β-adrenergic receptor agonist activity in addition to potent α-adrenergic receptor activity and therefore may be suitable for maintaining blood pressure with less negative effects on heart rate and cardiac output compared with phenylephrine.
Methods: In a randomized, double-blinded study, 104 healthy patients having cesarean delivery under spinal anesthesia were randomized to have systolic blood pressure maintained with a computer-controlled infusion of norepinephrine 5 μg/ml or phenylephrine 100 μg/ml. The primary outcome compared was cardiac output. Blood pressure heart rate and neonatal outcome were also compared.
Results: Normalized cardiac output 5 min after induction was greater in the norepinephrine group versus the phenylephrine group (median 102.7% [interquartile range, 94.3 to 116.7%] versus 93.8% [85.0 to 103.1%], P = 0.004, median difference 9.8%, 95% CI of difference between medians 2.8 to 16.1%). From induction until uterine incision, for norepinephrine versus phenylephrine, systolic blood pressure and stroke volume were similar, heart rate and cardiac output were greater, systemic vascular resistance was lower, and the incidence of bradycardia was smaller. Neonatal outcome was similar between groups.
Conclusions: When given by computer-controlled infusion during spinal anesthesia for cesarean delivery, norepinephrine was effective for maintaining blood pressure and was associated with greater heart rate and cardiac output compared with phenylephrine. Further work would be of interest to confirm the safety and efficacy of norepinephrine as a vasopressor in obstetric patients.
Background: Despite implementation of lung-protective ventilation strategy, acute respiratory distress syndrome is associated with significant mortality, which necessitates the evaluation of ventilatory modes other than conventional lung-protective strategy. This meta-analysis of the randomized controlled trials has been undertaken to know whether high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) provides any mortality benefit over conventional ventilation in adult patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome.
Methods: Published randomized controlled trials comparing HFOV with conventional lung-protective ventilation in adult patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome were included in this meta-analysis.
Results: A total 1,759 patient data from seven randomized controlled trials have been analyzed here. Primary outcome of the review is in-hospital/30-day mortality and secondary outcomes are duration of intensive care unit stay, duration of mechanical ventilation, requirement of additional treatment, and complications associated with the interventions. HFOV does not offer any in-hospital/30-day mortality benefit (386 of 886 in HFOV vs. 368 of 873 in conventional ventilation; risk ratio, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.77 to 1.19;P = 0.70) over conventional ventilation. It may also prolong the duration of mechanical ventilation (mean difference, 1.18 days; 95% CI, 0.00 to 2.35 days; P = 0.05). Duration of intensive care unit stay (mean difference, 1.24 days; 95% CI, −0.08 to 2.56 days; P = 0.06) and requirement of neuromuscular blocker is similar between two treatment arm. Incidence of refractory hypoxemia is significantly less (risk ratio, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.39 to 0.93; P = 0.02) with the use of HFOV. HFOV is not associated with increased incidence of barotrauma and refractory hypotension.
Conclusion: HFOV should not be used routinely in all adult patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome as primary ventilation strategy in place of conventional lung-protective ventilation.
Faisabilité de la boucle fermée de titration Propofol/Rémifentanil en fonction du BIS chez les enfants et les adolescents
Background: This study was designed to assess the feasibility of dual closed-loop titration of propofol and remifentanil guided solely by the Bispectral Index (BIS) monitor in pediatric and adolescent patients during anesthesia.
Methods: Children undergoing elective surgery in this single-blind randomized study were allocated into the closed-loop (auto) or manual (manual) group. Primary outcome was the percentage of time with the BIS in the range 40 to 60 (BIS40–60). Secondary outcomes were the percentage of deep (BIS<40) anesthesia and drug consumption. Data are presented as median (interquartile range) or number (%).
Results: Twenty-three patients (12 [10 to 14] yr) were assigned to the auto group and 19 (14 [7 to 14] yr) to the manual group. The closed-loop controller was able to provide induction and maintenance for all patients. The percentage of time with BIS40–60was greater in the auto group (87% [75 to 96] vs. 72% [48 to 79]; P = 0.002), with a decrease in the percentage of BIS<40 (7% [2 to 17] vs. 21% [11 to 38]; P = 0.002). Propofol (2.4 [1.9 to 3.3] vs. 1.7 [1.2 to 2.8] mg/kg) and remifentanil (2.3 [2.0 to 3.0] vs. 2.5 [1.2 to 4.3] μg/kg) consumptions were similar in auto versus manual groups during induction, respectively. During maintenance, propofol consumption (8.2 [6.0 to 10.2] vs. 7.9 [7.2 to 9.1] mg kg−1 h−1; P = 0.89) was similar between the two groups, but remifentanil consumption was greater in the auto group (0.39 [0.22 to 0.60] vs. 0.22 [0.17 to 0.32] μg kg−1min−1; P = 0.003). Perioperative adverse events and length of stay in the postanesthesia care unit were similar.
Conclusion: Intraoperative automated control of hypnosis and analgesia guided by the BIS is clinically feasible in pediatric and adolescent patients and outperformed skilled manual control.
Background: Even though ropivacaine is frequently used during orthopedic surgery, the relationship between plasma concentrations and degree of sensory anesthesia after a peripheral nerve block is currently unknown. The aim of this study was to characterize this relation using population pharmacokinetic–pharmacodynamic modeling.
Methods: Femoral nerve block was performed by the anterior approach using a single injection (20 ml) of 0.5% ropivacaine hydrochloride in 20 patients scheduled for total knee arthroplasty under spinal anesthesia. Sensory thresholds in response to a gradual increase in transcutaneous electrical stimulation (primary endpoints), loss and recovery of ice-cold sensation, as well as total ropivacaine plasma concentrations were determined up to 4 days after administration of the local anesthetic. Using NONMEM (ICON, USA), sensory block was modeled by assuming an equilibration delay (ke0) between amount in the depot and effect-site compartments.
Results: Mean effect-site amount producing 90% of the maximum possible effect (AE90) was estimated as 20.2 mg. At 2 × AE90, the sigmoid Emax model predicted a mean onset time of 23.4 min and mean duration of 22.9 h. Interindividual variability (IIV) for AE50 was 49%. Typical ke0 half-life was 34.7 min (IIV = 52%) and steepness parameter 8.7 (IIV = 48%). None of the pharmacodynamic model parameters showed sex, age, or body weight dependency.
Conclusions: A population pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model was developed that quantitatively describes the sensory component of a femoral nerve block in orthopedic patients. Further clinical studies will be needed to validate the clinical relevance of this finding.
Background Anaesthetists may fail to recognize and manage certain rare intraoperative events. Simulation has been shown to be an effective educational adjunct to typical operating room-based education to train for these events. It is yet unclear, however, why simulation has any benefit. We hypothesize that learners who are allowed to manage a scenario independently and allowed to fail, thus causing simulated morbidity, will consequently perform better when re-exposed to a similar scenario.
Methods Using a randomized, controlled, observer-blinded design, 24 first-year residents were exposed to an oxygen pipeline contamination scenario, either where patient harm occurred (independent group, n=12) or where a simulated attending anaesthetist intervened to prevent harm (supervised group, n=12). Residents were brought back 6 months later and exposed to a different scenario (pipeline contamination) with the same end point. Participants’ proper treatment, time to diagnosis, and non-technical skills (measured using the Anaesthetists’ Non-Technical Skills Checklist, ANTS) were measured.
Results No participants provided proper treatment in the initial exposure. In the repeat encounter 6 months later, 67% in the independent group vs17% in the supervised group resumed adequate oxygen delivery (P=0.013). The independent group also had better ANTS scores [median (interquartile range): 42.3 (31.5–53.1) vs 31.3 (21.6–41), P=0.015]. There was no difference in time to treatment if proper management was provided [602 (490–820) vs 610 (420–800) s, P=0.79].
Conclusions Allowing residents to practise independently in the simulation laboratory, and subsequently, allowing them to fail, can be an important part of simulation-based learning. This is not feasible in real clinical practice but appears to have improved resident performance in this study. The purposeful use of independent practice and its potentially negative outcomes thus sets simulation-based learning apart from traditional operating room learning.
Heure de sortie des patients de réanimation et risque de mortalité…
Rationale: Previous studies suggested an association between after-hours intensive care unit (ICU) discharge and increased hospital mortality. Their retrospective design and lack of correction for patient factors present at the time of discharge make this association problematic.
Objectives: To determine factors independently associated with mortality after ICU discharge.
Methods: This was a prospective, multicenter, binational observational study involving 40 ICUs in Australia and New Zealand. Participants were consecutive adult patients discharged alive from the ICU between September 2009 and February 2010.
Measurements and Main Results: We studied 10,211 patients discharged alive from the ICU. Median age was 63 years (interquartile range, 49–74), 6,224 (61%) were male, 5,707 (56%) required mechanical ventilation, and their median Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation III risk of death was 9% (interquartile range, 3–25%). A total of 8,539 (83.6%) patients were discharged in-hours (06:00–18:00) and 1,672 (16.4%) after-hours (18:00–06:00). Of these, 408 (4.8%) and 124 (7.4%), respectively, subsequently died in hospital (P < 0.001). After risk adjustment for markers of illness severity at time of ICU discharge including limitations of medical therapy (LOMT) orders, the time of discharge was no longer a significant predictor of mortality. The presence of a LOMT order was the strongest predictor of death (odds ratio, 35.4; 95% confidence interval, 27.5–45.6).
Conclusions: In this large, prospective, multicenter, binational observational study, we found that patient status at ICU discharge, particularly the presence of LOMT orders, was the chief predictor of hospital survival. In contrast to previous studies, the timing of discharge did not have an independent association with mortality.
Objectif Étudier les fondements du mémoire de spécialité d’anesthésie-réanimation, les difficultés dans sa réalisation et les moyens de les surmonter.
Type d’étude Enquête prospective en population.
Population Internes d’anesthésie-réanimation d’Île-de-France de deuxième, troisième et quatrième années (n=186, mars–avril 2013).
Méthode Enquête auprès des internes par questionnaire anonyme sur leur opinion vis-à-vis du mémoire, leur satisfaction, leurs attentes concernant le sujet, son choix, l’encadrement et les formations complémentaires, leur opinion sur des propositions d’amélioration.
Résultats Exhaustivité des réponses : 79 %. Lors de l’enquête, 52 % des répondeurs avaient un sujet. La moitié considérait que ce travail avait un intérêt pour leur formation et leur pratique quotidienne, 63 % pensaient qu’il représentait un enrichissement personnel et 90 % comptaient en tirer une satisfaction personnelle. La quasi-totalité des internes souhaitait que le sujet corresponde à leur centre d’intérêt, mais la moitié pensait que ce n’était pas à eux de le proposer. L’implication à chaque étape de la recherche était très variable d’un étudiant à l’autre. Pour les internes sans sujet, l’absence d’encadrant était la première raison évoquée. Plus de 70 % des internes étaient d’accord avec les propositions de formations complémentaires, à l’exception d’une date limite pour le choix du sujet. Les propositions de mise en contact avec des encadrants et de formations complémentaires étaient les plus souvent sollicitées.
Conclusion Le mémoire de DES représente un travail valorisé auprès des internes. L’amélioration de l’encadrement et des formations théoriques complémentaires pourrait augmenter les compétences des internes à réaliser cette recherche.
BACKGROUND: Intraoperative hypotension secondary to acute blood loss and fluid shifts increases morbidity and mortality. Intrathoracic pressure regulation (IPR) is a new therapy that enhances circulation by increasing venous return with a negative intrathoracic pressure created noninvasively, either actively (vacuum source or patient inspiration) or passively (chest recoil during cardiopulmonary resuscitation).
OBJECTIVE: In this Phase II pilot study, we tested the hypothesis that active IPR therapy would improve the haemodynamic status of patients who developed clinically significant hypotension during abdominal surgery.
DESIGN: A phase II, single cohort, interventional pilot study.
SETTING: University of Minnesota Fairview Hospital.
PATIENTS: Twenty-two patients [American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status I to III] were enrolled prospectively of whom 15 experienced intraoperative hypotension.
INTERVENTION: If intraoperative hypotension occurred more than 10 min after induction, the IPR device was applied immediately for a minimum of 10 min.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: The hypotensive SBP immediately before the start of IPR treatment was compared with the SBP obtained at the end of IPR therapy. The paired Student’s t-test was used to determine statistical significance (P < 0.05).
RESULTS: Fifteen of the 22 patients enrolled experienced 18 hypotensive episodes, which were treated with at least 10 min of IPR therapy. Fourteen episodes responded to IPR alone and four episodes (four patients) required additional fluid and vasopressor therapy to treat the hypotension. The group mean ± SD SBPs at the onset of the IPR treatment and at the end of IPR treatment were 90.7 ± 9.7 and 98.4 ± 17.4 mmHg (P = 0.02), respectively. The maximum SBP reached during the treatment was 105.6 ± 19.6 mmHg. Pulse pressure increased from 36.8 ± 8.5 mmHg immediately before IPR treatment to 41.5 ± 11.1 mmHg (P = 0.02) at the end of IPR treatment. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) increased from 66.3 ± 9.4 mmHg immediately before IPR treatment to 71.5 ± 14.4 mmHg (P = 0.03) at the end of IPR treatment. No adverse events were identified with use of the IPR device.
CONCLUSION: IPR may be useful in treating intraoperative hypotension without additional fluid or vasopressor therapy. No significant adverse events were observed. On the basis of this phase II pilot study, a larger study is justified.