La Biblio du Mois: Juillet 2015
Dans La Biblio du Mois, ACR, thrombolyse et vidange gastrique. Toujours plus de revues par le NEJM. Bonne lecture et bonnes vacances !
Sous-nutrition permissive VS Nutrition standard en réanimation
BACKGROUND The appropriate caloric goal for critically ill adults is unclear. We evaluated the effect of restriction of nonprotein calories (permissive underfeeding), as compared with standard enteral feeding, on 90-day mortality among critically ill adults, with maintenance of the full recommended amount of protein in both groups.
METHODS At seven centers, we randomly assigned 894 critically ill adults with a medical, surgical, or trauma admission category to permissive underfeeding (40 to 60% of calculated caloric requirements) or standard enteral feeding (70 to 100%) for up to 14 days while maintaining a similar protein intake in the two groups. The primary outcome was 90-day mortality.
RESULTS Baseline characteristics were similar in the two groups; 96.8% of the patients were receiving mechanical ventilation. During the intervention period, the permissive-underfeeding group received fewer mean (±SD) calories than did the standard-feeding group (835±297 kcal per day vs. 1299±467 kcal per day, P<0.001; 46±14% vs. 71±22% of caloric requirements, P<0.001). Protein intake was similar in the two groups (57±24 g per day and 59±25 g per day, respectively; P=0.29). The 90-day mortality was similar: 121 of 445 patients (27.2%) in the permissive-underfeeding group and 127 of 440 patients (28.9%) in the standard-feeding group died (relative risk with permissive underfeeding, 0.94; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.76 to 1.16; P=0.58). No serious adverse events were reported; there were no significant between-group differences with respect to feeding intolerance, diarrhea, infections acquired in the intensive care unit (ICU), or ICU or hospital length of stay.
CONCLUSIONS Enteral feeding to deliver a moderate amount of nonprotein calories to critically ill adults was not associated with lower mortality than that associated with planned delivery of a full amount of nonprotein calories.
Thrombectomie & Thrombolyse VS Thrombolyse seule dans l’AVC
BACKGROUND Among patients with acute ischemic stroke due to occlusions in the proximal anterior intracranial circulation, less than 40% regain functional independence when treated with intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) alone. Thrombectomy with the use of a stent retriever, in addition to intravenous t-PA, increases reperfusion rates and may improve long-term functional outcome.
METHODS We randomly assigned eligible patients with stroke who were receiving or had received intravenous t-PA to continue with t-PA alone (control group) or to undergo endovascular thrombectomy with the use of a stent retriever within 6 hours after symptom onset (intervention group). Patients had confirmed occlusions in the proximal anterior intracranial circulation and an absence of large ischemic-core lesions. The primary outcome was the severity of global disability at 90 days, as assessed by means of the modified Rankin scale (with scores ranging from 0 [no symptoms] to 6 [death]).
RESULTS The study was stopped early because of efficacy. At 39 centers, 196 patients underwent randomization (98 patients in each group). In the intervention group, the median time from qualifying imaging to groin puncture was 57 minutes, and the rate of substantial reperfusion at the end of the procedure was 88%. Thrombectomy with the stent retriever plus intravenous t-PA reduced disability at 90 days over the entire range of scores on the modified Rankin scale (P<0.001). The rate of functional independence (modified Rankin scale score, 0 to 2) was higher in the intervention group than in the control group (60% vs. 35%, P<0.001). There were no significant between-group differences in 90-day mortality (9% vs. 12%, P=0.50) or symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (0% vs. 3%, P=0.12).
CONCLUSIONS In patients receiving intravenous t-PA for acute ischemic stroke due to occlusions in the proximal anterior intracranial circulation, thrombectomy with a stent retriever within 6 hours after onset improved functional outcomes at 90 days.
Thrombectomie précoce dans les AVC ischémiques
BACKGROUND We aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of thrombectomy for the treatment of stroke in a trial embedded within a population-based stroke reperfusion registry.
METHODS During a 2-year period at four centers in Catalonia, Spain, we randomly assigned 206 patients who could be treated within 8 hours after the onset of symptoms of acute ischemic stroke to receive either medical therapy (including intravenous alteplase when eligible) and endovascular therapy with the Solitaire stent retriever (thrombectomy group) or medical therapy alone (control group). All patients had confirmed proximal anterior circulation occlusion and the absence of a large infarct on neuroimaging. In all study patients, the use of alteplase either did not achieve revascularization or was contraindicated. The primary outcome was the severity of global disability at 90 days, as measured on the modified Rankin scale (ranging from 0 [no symptoms] to 6 [death]). Although the maximum planned sample size was 690, enrollment was halted early because of loss of equipoise after positive results for thrombectomy were reported from other similar trials.
RESULTS Thrombectomy reduced the severity of disability over the range of the modified Rankin scale (adjusted odds ratio for improvement of 1 point, 1.7; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05 to 2.8) and led to higher rates of functional independence (a score of 0 to 2) at 90 days (43.7% vs. 28.2%; adjusted odds ratio, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.1 to 4.0). At 90 days, the rates of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage were 1.9% in both the thrombectomy group and the control group (P=1.00), and rates of death were 18.4% and 15.5%, respectively (P=0.60). Registry data indicated that only eight patients who met the eligibility criteria were treated outside the trial at participating hospitals.
CONCLUSIONS Among patients with anterior circulation stroke who could be treated within 8 hours after symptom onset, stent retriever thrombectomy reduced the severity of post-stroke disability and increased the rate of functional independence.
Réanimation cardio-pulmonaire (RCP) précoce extra-hospitalière des ACR: une évaluation d’un système d’alerte par téléphonie mobile localisant les volontaires préalablement formés à la RCP
BACKGROUND Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) performed by bystanders is associated with increased survival rates among persons with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. We investigated whether rates of bystander-initiated CPR could be increased with the use of a mobile-phone positioning system that could instantly locate mobile-phone users and dispatch lay volunteers who were trained in CPR to a patient nearby with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.
METHODS We conducted a blinded, randomized, controlled trial in Stockholm from April 2012 through December 2013. A mobile-phone positioning system that was activated when ambulance, fire, and police services were dispatched was used to locate trained volunteers who were within 500 m of patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest; volunteers were then dispatched to the patients (the intervention group) or not dispatched to them (the control group). The primary outcome was bystander-initiated CPR before the arrival of ambulance, fire, and police services.
RESULTS A total of 5989 lay volunteers who were trained in CPR were recruited initially, and overall 9828 were recruited during the study. The mobile-phone positioning system was activated in 667 out-of-hospital cardiac arrests: 46% (306 patients) in the intervention group and 54% (361 patients) in the control group. The rate of bystander-initiated CPR was 62% (188 of 305 patients) in the intervention group and 48% (172 of 360 patients) in the control group (absolute difference for intervention vs. control, 14 percentage points; 95% confidence interval, 6 to 21; P<0.001).
CONCLUSIONS A mobile-phone positioning system to dispatch lay volunteers who were trained in CPR was associated with significantly increased rates of bystander-initiated CPR among persons with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.
L’effet placébo en pratique clinique
Thrombocytopénie Induite par l’Héparine
Différences d’effet sur l’oxygénation tissulaire lors de l’ananesthésie générale de la phényléphrine et de la noradrénaline
BACKGROUND: Phenylephrine and norepinephrine are two vasopressors commonly used to counteract anaesthesia-induced hypotension. Their dissimilar working mechanisms may differentially affect the macro and microcirculation, and ultimately tissue oxygenation.
OBJECTIVES: We investigated the differential effect of phenylephrine and norepinephrine on the heart rate (HR), stroke volume (SV), cardiac index (CI), cerebral tissue oxygenation (SctO2) and peripheral tissue oxygenation (SptO2), and rate-pressure product (RPP).
DESIGN: A randomised controlled study.
SETTING: Single-centre, University Medical Center Groningen, The Netherlands.
PATIENTS: Sixty normovolaemic patients under balanced propofol/remifentanil anaesthesia.
INTERVENTIONS: If the mean arterial pressure (MAP) dropped below 80% of the awake state value, phenylephrine (100 μg + 0.5 μg kg−1 min−1) or norepinephrine (10 μg + 0.05 μg kg−1 min−1) was administered in a randomised fashion.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: MAP, HR, SV, CI, SctO2, SptO2 and rate-pressure product (RPP) analysed from 30 s before drug administration until 240 s thereafter.
RESULTS: Phenylephrine and norepinephrine caused an equivalent increase in MAP [Δ = 13 (8 to 22) and Δ = 13 (9 to 19) mmHg, respectively] and SV [Δ = 6 ± 6 and Δ = 5 ± 7 ml, respectively], combined with a significant equivalent decrease in HR (both Δ = −8 ± 6 bpm), CI (both Δ = −0.2 ± 0.3 l min−1 m−2) and SctO2 and an unchanged RPP (Δ = 345 ± 876 and Δ = 537 ± 1076 mmHg min−1). However, SptO2 was slightly but statistically significantly (P < 0.05) decreased after norepinephrine [Δ = −3 (−6 to 0)%] but not after phenylephrine administration [Δ = 0 (−1 to 1)%]. In both groups, SptO2 after vasopressor was still higher than the awake value.
CONCLUSION: In normovolaemic patients under balanced propofol/remifentanil anaesthesia, phenylephrine and norepinephrine produced similar clinical effects when used to counteract anaesthesia-induced hypotension. After norepinephrine, a fall in peripheral tissue oxygenation was statistically significant, but its magnitude was not clinically relevant.
Chirurgie cardiaque: l’insuffisance cardiaque droite précède l’insuffisance rénale
BACKGROUND: Several authors have suggested that right ventricular dysfunction (RVd) may contribute to renal dysfunction in nonsurgical patients.
OBJECTIVES: We tested the hypothesis that RVd diagnosed immediately after cardiac surgery may be associated with subsequent development of renal dysfunction and tried to identify the possible mechanisms.
DESIGN: A single-centre, prospective observational study.
SETTING: Amiens University Hospital, France.
PATIENTS: All adult patients undergoing cardiac surgery were considered eligible for participation. Patients who had undergone pulmonary or tricuspid valve surgery, repeat surgery or who underwent immediate postoperative renal replacement therapy were excluded. Data from 74 patients were analysed.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Left ventricular and right ventricular function were assessed before surgery and on admission to ICU by transthoracic echocardiography (TTE): left ventricular and right ventricular ejection fractions (LVEF/RVEF), tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE), tricuspid annular systolic velocity (Sr(t)) and right ventricular dilatation. RVd was defined as values in the lowest quartile of at least two echocardiographic variables. Renal dysfunction was defined as an increase in serum creatinine concentration (sCr) on postoperative day 1.
RESULTS: All right ventricular TTE variables decreased (P < 0.05) after surgery: RVEF from 50% (49 to 60) to 40% (35 to 50); TAPSE from 22.3 mm (19.4 to 25.3) to 12.2 mm (8.8 to 14.8); and Sr(t) from 15.0 cm s−1 (12.0 to 18.0) to 8.1 cm s−1 (6.3 to 9.2). Fourteen (19%) patients had right ventricular dilatation and RVd was present in 23 (31%) patients. Forty patients had a positive variation in sCr. In multivariate analysis, patients with RVd had an odds ratio (OR) of 12.7 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 2.6 to 63.4, P = 0.02] for development of renal dysfunction. Renal dysfunction was associated with increased central venous pressure but was not associated with cardiac index (CI).
CONCLUSION: These results suggest that early postoperative RVd is associated with a subsequent increase of sCr and that the mechanism involved is congestion (vena cava dilatation/elevated CVP) rather than decreased CI.
Etat des lieux de l’utilisation du NO en pratique clinique
Chirurgie urgente: evaluation de la vidange gastrique par l’érythromycine
IMPORTANCE Patients undergoing emergency procedures under general anesthesia have impaired gastric emptying and are at high risk for aspiration of gastric contents. Erythromycin has strong gastric prokinetic properties.
OBJECTIVES To evaluate the efficacy of erythromycin lactobionate in gastric emptying in patients undergoing emergency surgery.
DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS The Erythro-Emerge trial was a single-center, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial in patients undergoing emergency surgery under general anesthesia at Geneva University Hospitals. We included 132 patients from March 25, 2009, through April 10, 2013, and all patients completed the study. Randomization was stratified for trauma and nontrauma procedures. The randomization code was opened on April 23, 2013, and analyses were performed through July 26, 2013. We performed an intention-to-treat analysis.
INTERVENTION Patients were randomized to intravenous erythromycin lactobionate, 3 mg/kg, or placebo 15 minutes before tracheal intubation. Patients were followed up for 24 hours.
MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The primary outcome was a clear stomach, defined as less than 40 mL of liquids and no solids and identified through endoscopy immediately after intubation. The secondary outcome was the pH level of residual gastric content.
RESULTS A clear stomach was diagnosed in 42 of 66 patients (64%) receiving placebo compared with 53 of 66 patients (80%) receiving erythromycin (risk ratio, 1.26 [95% CI, 1.01-1.57]). In the population undergoing surgery for nontrauma, the association between receipt of erythromycin and having a clear stomach (adjusted odds ratio [95% CI]) was statistically significant (13.4 [1.49-120]; P = .02); in the population undergoing surgery for trauma, it was not (1.81 [0.64-5.16]; P = .26). Median (interquartile range) pH of the residual gastric liquid was 2 (1-4) in 36 patients receiving placebo and 6 (3-7) in 16 receiving erythromycin (P = .002). Patients receiving erythromycin had nausea (20 [30%] vs 4 [6%]) and stomach cramps (15 [23%] vs 2 [3%]) more often than those receiving placebo. One patient receiving erythromycin vomited before induction of anesthesia.
CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE In patients undergoing general anesthesia for emergency procedures, erythromycin administration increased the proportion with a clear stomach and decreased the acidity of residual gastric liquid. Erythromycin was particularly efficacious in the nontrauma population. Adverse effects were minor. Further large-scale studies are warranted to confirm the potential of erythromycin to reduce the incidence of bronchoaspiration in patients undergoing emergency surgery.