Biblio du mois : Septembre 2016
Ca y est, la SFAR et l’été sont finis… Mais on ne vous oublie pas, voici de quoi vous tenir à jour : La Biblio du mois de l’AJAR !
Vous pourrez voir entre autres des preuves plus solides pour une administration continue d’ATB, l’étude sur l’Andexanet (le nouvel anditote des inhibiteurs Xa, AOD compris), une étude majeure sur la craniectomie décompressive mais aussi des études sur les outcomes à distance des patients sortant de Réanimation, des protocoles d’Anesthésie et bien d’autres !
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Andexanet alpha, nouvel antidote des inhibiteurs du Xa
Connolly et al., NEJM, 2016
Andexanet alfa (andexanet) is a recombinant modified human factor Xa decoy protein that has been shown to reverse the inhibition of factor Xa in healthy volunteers.
In this multicenter, prospective, open-label, single-group study, we evaluated 67 patients who had acute major bleeding within 18 hours after the administration of a factor Xa inhibitor. The patients all received a bolus of andexanet followed by a 2-hour infusion of the drug. Patients were evaluated for changes in measures of anti–factor Xa activity and were assessed for clinical hemostatic efficacy during a 12-hour period. All the patients were subsequently followed for 30 days. The efficacy population of 47 patients had a baseline value for anti–factor Xa activity of at least 75 ng per milliliter (or ≥0.5 IU per milliliter for those receiving enoxaparin) and had confirmed bleeding severity at adjudication.
The mean age of the patients was 77 years; most of the patients had substantial cardiovascular disease. Bleeding was predominantly gastrointestinal or intracranial. The mean (±SD) time from emergency department presentation to the administration of the andexanet bolus was 4.8±1.8 hours. After the bolus administration, the median anti–factor Xa activity decreased by 89% (95% confidence interval [CI], 58 to 94) from baseline among patients receiving rivaroxaban and by 93% (95% CI, 87 to 94) among patients receiving apixaban. These levels remained similar during the 2-hour infusion. Four hours after the end of the infusion, there was a relative decrease from baseline of 39% in the measure of anti–factor Xa activity among patients receiving rivaroxaban and of 30% among those receiving apixaban. Twelve hours after the andexanet infusion, clinical hemostasis was adjudicated as excellent or good in 37 of 47 patients in the efficacy analysis (79%; 95% CI, 64 to 89). Thrombotic events occurred in 12 of 67 patients (18%) during the 30-day follow-up.
On the basis of a descriptive preliminary analysis, an initial bolus and subsequent 2-hour infusion of andexanet substantially reduced anti–factor Xa activity in patients with acute major bleeding associated with factor Xa inhibitors, with effective hemostasis occurring in 79%.
Craniectomie décompressive dans l’HTIC post-traumatique ? La Question éthique
Hutchinson, et al., NEJM, 2016
The effect of decompressive craniectomy on clinical outcomes in patients with refractory traumatic intracranial hypertension remains unclear.
From 2004 through 2014, we randomly assigned 408 patients, 10 to 65 years of age, with traumatic brain injury and refractory elevated intracranial pressure (>25 mm Hg) to undergo decompressive craniectomy or receive ongoing medical care. The primary outcome was the rating on the Extended Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS-E) (an 8-point scale, ranging from death to “upper good recovery” [no injury-related problems]) at 6 months. The primary-outcome measure was analyzed with an ordinal method based on the proportional-odds model. If the model was rejected, that would indicate a significant difference in the GOS-E distribution, and results would be reported descriptively.
The GOS-E distribution differed between the two groups (P<0.001). The proportional-odds assumption was rejected, and therefore results are reported descriptively. At 6 months, the GOS-E distributions were as follows: death, 26.9% among 201 patients in the surgical group versus 48.9% among 188 patients in the medical group; vegetative state, 8.5% versus 2.1%; lower severe disability (dependent on others for care), 21.9% versus 14.4%; upper severe disability (independent at home), 15.4% versus 8.0%; moderate disability, 23.4% versus 19.7%; and good recovery, 4.0% versus 6.9%. At 12 months, the GOS-E distributions were as follows: death, 30.4% among 194 surgical patients versus 52.0% among 179 medical patients; vegetative state, 6.2% versus 1.7%; lower severe disability, 18.0% versus 14.0%; upper severe disability, 13.4% versus 3.9%; moderate disability, 22.2% versus 20.1%; and good recovery, 9.8% versus 8.4%. Surgical patients had fewer hours than medical patients with intracranial pressure above 25 mm Hg after randomization (median, 5.0 vs. 17.0 hours; P<0.001) but had a higher rate of adverse events (16.3% vs. 9.2%, P=0.03).
At 6 months, decompressive craniectomy in patients with traumatic brain injury and refractory intracranial hypertension resulted in lower mortality and higher rates of vegetative state, lower severe disability, and upper severe disability than medical care. The rates of moderate disability and good recovery were similar in the two groups.
Intérêt du contrôle intensif de la pression artérielle dans l’AVC hémorragique ?
Qureshi et al., NEJM, 2016
Limited data are available to guide the choice of a target for the systolic blood-pressure level when treating acute hypertensive response in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage.
We randomly assigned eligible participants with intracerebral hemorrhage (volume, <60 cm3) and a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score of 5 or more (on a scale from 3 to 15, with lower scores indicating worse condition) to a systolic blood-pressure target of 110 to 139 mm Hg (intensive treatment) or a target of 140 to 179 mm Hg (standard treatment) in order to test the superiority of intensive reduction of systolic blood pressure to standard reduction; intravenous nicardipine to lower blood pressure was administered within 4.5 hours after symptom onset. The primary outcome was death or disability (modified Rankin scale score of 4 to 6, on a scale ranging from 0 [no symptoms] to 6 [death]) at 3 months after randomization, as ascertained by an investigator who was unaware of the treatment assignments.
Among 1000 participants with a mean (±SD) systolic blood pressure of 200.6±27.0 mm Hg at baseline, 500 were assigned to intensive treatment and 500 to standard treatment. The mean age of the patients was 61.9 years, and 56.2% were Asian. Enrollment was stopped because of futility after a prespecified interim analysis. The primary outcome of death or disability was observed in 38.7% of the participants (186 of 481) in the intensive-treatment group and in 37.7% (181 of 480) in the standard-treatment group (relative risk, 1.04; 95% confidence interval, 0.85 to 1.27; analysis was adjusted for age, initial GCS score, and presence or absence of intraventricular hemorrhage). Serious adverse events occurring within 72 hours after randomization that were considered by the site investigator to be related to treatment were reported in 1.6% of the patients in the intensive-treatment group and in 1.2% of those in the standard-treatment group. The rate of renal adverse events within 7 days after randomization was significantly higher in the intensive-treatment group than in the standard-treatment group (9.0% vs. 4.0%, P=0.002).
The treatment of participants with intracerebral hemorrhage to achieve a target systolic blood pressure of 110 to 139 mm Hg did not result in a lower rate of death or disability than standard reduction to a target of 140 to 179 mm Hg.
Extubation nocturne en Réanimation : Sur-risque de mortalité ?
Gershengorn et al., JAMA, 2016
Little is known about the timing of extubations for patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) who undergo mechanical ventilation (MV) or whether overnight extubation is safe.
To describe the frequency of overnight extubations and assess the association between overnight extubations and clinical outcomes.
Design, Setting, and Participants
This retrospective cohort study included adults (aged ≥18 years) undergoing MV performed in US ICUs as part of the Project IMPACT database from October 1, 2000, to March 29, 2009. Data were analyzed from January 1, 2015, to July 5, 2016.
Overnight extubation defined as occurring from 7 pm to 6:59 am.
Main Outcomes and Measures
Multilevel multivariable regression analyses (clustered by individual ICU) were used to identify factors associated with overnight extubation. Propensity-matched pairs were created of patients undergoing overnight vs daytime extubation (separately for patients with MV duration <12 and ≥12 hours). Outcomes, including frequency of reintubation in the ICU, ICU and hospital mortality, and ICU and hospital length of stay (LOS), were assessed using χ2 and Mann-Whitney tests.
The cohort consisted of 97 844 patients (40.8% men; 59.2% women; mean [SD] age, 58.3 [17.9] years) across 165 ICUs. Of these, 20.1% of patients underwent overnight extubation and the percentage decreased over time (23.3% in 2000-2001 vs 18.8% in 2009; P = .001). After multivariable adjustment, duration of MV of less than 12 hours had the greatest association with overnight extubation (compared with 12 hours to <1 day: adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 0.20 [95% CI, 0.19-0.21]; 1 to <2 days: AOR, 0.26 [95% CI, 0.24-0.28]; 2 to <7 days: AOR, 0.22 [95% CI, 0.21-0.24]; and ≥7 days: AOR, 0.24 [95% CI, 0.22-0.26]). In all, 4518 propensity-matched pairs had MV duration of less than 12 hours and 5761 had MV duration of at least 12 hours. For MV duration of less than 12 hours, reintubation rates were similar for overnight and daytime extubations (5.9% and 5.6%, respectively; P = .50), but mortality was increased for patients undergoing overnight extubation (ICU, 5.6% vs 4.6%, P = .03; hospital, 8.3% vs 7.0%, P = .01). The ICU LOS was shorter for overnight vs daytime extubations (median [interquartile range], 1.1 [0.8-2.3] vs 1.4 [0.9-2.5] days; P < .001), and hospital LOS was similar (median [interquartile range], 7.0 [4.0-12.0] vs 7.0 [3.0-12.0] days; P = .03). Patients with MV duration of at least 12 hours who underwent overnight extubation had more frequent reintubation in the ICU (14.6% vs 12.4%; P < .001) and higher mortality in the ICU (11.2% vs 6.1%; P < .001) and in the hospital (16.0% vs 11.1%; P < .001), with no differences in LOS.
Conclusions and Relevance
Approximately one-fifth of patients with MV in US ICUs undergo overnight extubation. These patients have higher rates of ICU and hospital mortality than patients undergoing extubation during the daytime. Further studies are needed to understand why overnight extubation results in poorer outcomes.
Gestion de la FA pendant un sepsis : Anticoagulation inutile ?
Walkey et al., JAMA, 2016
Atrial fibrillation (AF) during sepsis is associated with an increased risk of ischemic stroke during hospitalization, but risks and benefits associated with anticoagulation for AF during sepsis are unclear.
To determine clinician practice patterns and patient risk of stroke and bleeding associated with use of anticoagulation for AF during sepsis.
Design, Setting, and Participants
A retrospective cohort study using enhanced administrative claims data from approximately 20% of patients hospitalized in the United States July 1, 2010, to June 30, 2013, examined patients with AF during sepsis who did not have additional indications for therapeutic anticoagulation. Propensity score and instrumental variable analyses were used to evaluate risks of in-hospital stroke and bleeding associated with anticoagulation during sepsis.
Parenteral anticoagulants administered in doses greater than those used for prophylaxis of venous thromboembolism.
Main Outcomes and Measures
Ischemic stroke and clinically significant bleeding events during hospitalization.
Of 113 511 patients hospitalized with AF and sepsis, 38 582 were included in our primary analysis (18 976 men and 19 606 women; mean [SD] age, 74.9 [11.7] years). A total of 13 611 patients (35.3%) received parenteral anticoagulants, while 24 971 (64.7%) did not. Hospital utilization rates of parenteral anticoagulants for AF during sepsis varied (median, 33%; 25th-75th percentile, 25%-43%). CHA2DS2VASc scores (congestive heart failure, hypertension, age ≥75 years [doubled], type 1 or type 2 diabetes, stroke or transient ischemic attack or thromboembolism [doubled], vascular disease [prior myocardial infarction, peripheral artery disease, or aortic plaque], age 65-75 years, sex category [female]) poorly discriminated the risk of ischemic stroke during sepsis (C statistic, 0.526). Among 27 010 propensity score–matched patients, rates of in-hospital ischemic stroke events did not differ significantly between patients who did (174 of 13 505 [1.3%]) and did not (185 of 13 505 [1.4%]) receive parenteral anticoagulation (relative risk [RR], 0.94; 95% CI, 0.77-1.15). Clinically significant bleeding occurred more often among patients who received parenteral anticoagulation (1163 of 13 505 [8.6%]) than patients who did not receive parenteral anticoagulation (979 of 13 505 [7.2%]; RR, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.10-1.32). Risk of ischemic stroke associated with parenteral anticoagulation did not differ significantly between patients with preexisting (RR, 1.12; 95% CI, 0.86-1.44) or newly diagnosed AF (RR, 0.85; 95% CI 0.57-1.27; P = .31 for interaction). Results were robust to multiple sensitivity analyses, including hospital utilization rates of parenteral anticoagulation for AF as an instrument for anticoagulation exposure (RR for stroke, 1.08; 95% CI, 0.62-1.90; RR for bleeding, 1.23; 95% CI, 0.88-1.72).
Conclusions and Relevance
Among patients with AF during sepsis, parenteral anticoagulation was not associated with reduced risk of ischemic stroke and was associated with higher bleeding rates.
Impact du type d’anesthésie sur la survie d’une FAV
Aitken et al., Lancet, 2016
Arteriovenous fistulae are the optimum form of vascular access in end-stage renal failure. However, they have a high early failure rate. Regional compared with local anaesthesia results in greater vasodilatation and increases short-term blood flow. This study investigated whether regional compared with local anaesthesia improved medium-term arteriovenous fistula patency.
This observer-blinded, randomised controlled trial was done at three university hospitals in Glasgow, UK. Adults undergoing primary radiocephalic or brachiocephalic arteriovenous fistula creation were randomly assigned (1:1; in blocks of eight) using a computer-generated allocation system to receive either local anaesthesia (0·5% L-bupivacaine and 1% lidocaine injected subcutaneously) or regional (brachial plexus block [BPB]) anaesthesia (0·5% L-bupivacaine and 1·5% lidocaine with epinephrine). Patients were excluded if they were coagulopathic, had no suitable vessels, or had a previous failed ipsilateral fistula. The primary endpoint was arteriovenous fistula patency at 3 months. We analysed the data on an intention-to-treat basis. and is complete.
Between Feb 6, 2013, and Dec 4, 2015, 163 patients were assessed for eligibility and 126 patients were randomly assigned to local anaesthesia (n=63) or BPB (n=63). All patients completed follow-up on an intention-to-treat basis. Primary patency at 3 months was higher in the BPB group than the local anaesthesia group (53 [84%] of 63 patients vs 39 [62%] of 63; odds ratio [OR] 3·3 [95% CI 1·4–7·6], p=0·005) and was greater in radiocephalic fistulae (20 [77%] of 26 patients vs 12 [48%] of 25; OR 3·6 [1·4–3·6], p=0·03). There were no significant adverse events related to the procedure.
Méta-analyse sur l’intérêt de l’administration d’ATB continue versus intermittente : Diminution de la mortalité ?
Optimization of β-lactam antibiotic dosing for critically ill patients is an intervention that may improve outcomes in severe sepsis.
In this individual patient data meta-analysis of critically ill patients with severe sepsis, we aimed to compare clinical outcomes of those treated with continuous versus intermittent infusion of β-lactam antibiotics.
We identified relevant randomized controlled trials comparing continuous versus intermittent infusion of β-lactam antibiotics in critically ill patients with severe sepsis. We assessed the quality of the studies according to four criteria. We combined individual patient data from studies and assessed data integrity for common baseline demographics and study endpoints, including hospital mortality censored at 30 days and clinical cure. We then determined the pooled estimates of effect and investigated factors associated with hospital mortality in multivariable analysis.
Measurements and Main Results
We identified three randomized controlled trials in which researchers recruited a total of 632 patients with severe sepsis. The two groups were well balanced in terms of age, sex, and illness severity. The rates of hospital mortality and clinical cure for the continuous versus intermittent infusion groups were 19.6% versus 26.3% (relative risk, 0.74; 95% confidence interval, 0.56–1.00; P = 0.045) and 55.4% versus 46.3% (relative risk, 1.20; 95% confidence interval, 1.03–1.40; P = 0.021), respectively. In a multivariable model, intermittent β-lactam administration, higher Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score, use of renal replacement therapy, and infection by nonfermenting gram-negative bacilli were significantly associated with hospital mortality. Continuous β-lactam administration was not independently associated with clinical cure.
Compared with intermittent dosing, administration of β-lactam antibiotics by continuous infusion in critically ill patients with severe sepsis is associated with decreased hospital mortality.
Meilleure guérison avec administration d’ATB en continu ?
Abdul-Aziz et al., ICM, 2016
This study aims to determine if continuous infusion (CI) is associated with better clinical and pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) outcomes compared to intermittent bolus (IB) dosing in critically ill patients with severe sepsis.
This was a two-centre randomised controlled trial of CI versus IB dosing of beta-lactam antibiotics, which enrolled critically ill participants with severe sepsis who were not on renal replacement therapy (RRT). The primary outcome was clinical cure at 14 days after antibiotic cessation. Secondary outcomes were PK/PD target attainment, ICU-free days and ventilator-free days at day 28 post-randomisation, 14- and 30-day survival, and time to white cell count normalisation.
A total of 140 participants were enrolled with 70 participants each allocated to CI and IB dosing. CI participants had higher clinical cure rates (56 versus 34 %, p = 0.011) and higher median ventilator-free days (22 versus 14 days, p < 0.043) than IB participants. PK/PD target attainment rates were higher in the CI arm at 100 % fT>MIC than the IB arm on day 1 (97 versus 70 %, p < 0.001) and day 3 (97 versus 68 %, p < 0.001) post-randomisation. There was no difference in 14-day or 30-day survival between the treatment arms.
In critically ill patients with severe sepsis not receiving RRT, CI demonstrated higher clinical cure rates and had better PK/PD target attainment compared to IB dosing of beta-lactam antibiotics. Continuous beta-lactam infusion may be mostly advantageous for critically ill patients with high levels of illness severity and not receiving RRT.
Epuration extra-corporelle de CO2 en cas d’échec de la VNI pour éviter la ventilation mécanique
Braune et al., ICM, 2016
The aim of the study was to evaluate the feasibility and safety of avoiding invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) by using extracorporeal CO2 removal (ECCO2R) in patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and acute hypercapnic respiratory failure refractory to noninvasive ventilation (NIV).
Case–control study. Patients with acute hypercapnic respiratory failure refractory to NIV being treated with a pump-driven veno-venous ECCO2R system (iLA-Activve®; Novalung, Heilbronn, Germany) were prospectively observed in five European intensive care units (ICU). Inclusion criteria were respiratory acidosis (pH ≤ 7.35, PaCO2 > 45 mmHg) with predefined criteria for endotracheal intubation (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01784367). The historical controls were patients with acute hypercapnic respiratory failure refractory to NIV who were treated with IMV. The matching criteria were main diagnosis, age, SAPS-II score and pH.
Twenty-five cases (48.0 % male, mean age 67.3 years) were matched with 25 controls. Intubation was avoided in 14 patients (56.0 %) in the ECCO2R group with a mean extracorporeal blood flow of 1.3 L/min. Seven patients were intubated because of progressive hypoxaemia and four owing to ventilatory failure despite ECCO2R and NIV. Relevant ECCO2R-associated adverse events were observed in 11 patients (44.0 %), of whom 9 (36.0 %) suffered major bleeding complications. The mean time on IMV, ICU stay and hospital stay in the case and control groups were 8.3 vs. 13.7, 28.9 vs. 24.0 and 36.9 vs. 37.0 days, respectively, and the 90-day mortality rates were 28.0 vs. 28.0 %.
The use of veno-venous ECCO2R to avoid invasive mechanical ventilation was successful in just over half of the cases. However, relevant ECCO2R-associated complications occurred in over one-third of cases. Despite the shorter period of IMV in the ECCO2R group there were no significant differences in length of stay or in 28- and 90-day mortality rates between the two groups. Larger, randomised studies are warranted for further assessment of the effectiveness of ECCO2R.
Déclin physique chez les survivants d’un SDRA à 5 ans
Pfoh et al., ICM, 2016
Survivors of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are at high risk for new or ongoing physical declines after hospital discharge. The objective of our study was to evaluate the epidemiology of physical declines over 5-year follow-up and identify patients at risk for decline.
This multi-site prospective cohort study evaluated ARDS survivors who completed a physical status assessment at 3 or 6 months post-discharge. Three measures were evaluated: muscle strength (Medical Resource Council sumscore); exercise capacity [6-min walk test (6MWT)]; physical functioning [36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36 survey)]. Patients were defined as “declined” if a comparison of their current and prior score showed a decrease that was greater than the Reliable Change Index—or if the patient died. Risk factors [pre-ARDS baseline status, intensive care unit (ICU) illness severity, and other intensive care variables] were evaluated using longitudinal, generalized linear regression models for each measure.
During the follow-up of 193 ARDS survivors (55 % male; median age 49 years), 166 (86 %) experienced decline in ≥1 physical measure (including death) and 133 (69 %) experienced a physical decline (excluding death). For all measures, age was a significant risk factor [odds ratios (OR) 1.34–1.69 per decade; p < 0.001]. Pre-ARDS comorbidity (Charlson Index) was independently associated with declines in strength and exercise capacity (OR 1.10 and 1.18, respectively; p < 0.02), and organ failure [maximum daily Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score in ICU] was associated with declines in strength (OR 1.06 per 1 point of SOFA score; p = 0.02).
Over the follow-up period, the majority of ARDS survivors experienced a physical decline, with older age and pre-ICU comorbidity being important risk factors for this decline.
Facteurs hôte-parasite de sévérité des crises palustres
Bruneel et al., ICM, 2016
Prospective data on potential factors associated with severity of imported Plasmodium falciparum malaria are lacking. We evaluated whether several host- and parasite-related biomarkers may improve early severity evaluation.
Prospective multicenter observational study comparing uncomplicated and severe imported falciparum malaria in adults conducted in France in 52 units, from 2007 to 2010. Association of several host- and parasite-related biomarkers with severity of malaria was tested using univariate and multivariate analyses.
Of 295 patients, 140 had uncomplicated malaria and 155 severe malaria (including very severe and less severe cases according to predefined criteria). Curative intravenous quinine treatment was used in 154/155 patients with severe malaria and atovaquone/proguanil in 74 % of patients with uncomplicated malaria. Hospital mortality was 5.2 % (8 patients), all in the severe malaria group. Among host-related biomarkers, CRP, procalcitonin, and sTREM-1 were significantly higher and albumin was significantly lower in severe versus uncomplicated malaria; only the last three biomarkers also differed significantly between the very and less severe malaria groups. Among parasite-related biomarkers, only plasma PfHRP2 was significantly higher in severe versus uncomplicated malaria and in very severe versus less severe malaria; parasitemia did not differ between very and less severe malaria. By multivariate analysis, only lower plasma albumin and higher sTREM-1 were associated with greater severity, with intermediate accuracies.
During imported malaria, the most useful biomarkers associated with severity seem to be plasma albumin and sTREM-1; and among parasite-related parameters, PfHRP2 was more strongly associated with severity than parasitemia was.
Méta-analyse et analyse séquentielle sur le Milrinone sur la dysfonction cardiaque en réanimation
Koster et al., ICM, 2016
Etude sur les techniques de sauvetage après échec de laryngoscopie : Vive la vidéo-laryngoscopie ?
Aziz et al., Anesthesiology, 2016
Multiple attempts at tracheal intubation are associated with mortality, and successful rescue requires a structured plan. However, there remains a paucity of data to guide the choice of intubation rescue technique after failed initial direct laryngoscopy. The authors studied a large perioperative database to determine success rates for commonly used intubation rescue techniques.
Using a retrospective, observational, comparative design, the authors analyzed records from seven academic centers within the Multicenter Perioperative Outcomes Group between 2004 and 2013. The primary outcome was the comparative success rate for five commonly used techniques to achieve successful tracheal intubation after failed direct laryngoscopy: (1) video laryngoscopy, (2) flexible fiberoptic intubation, (3) supraglottic airway as part of an exchange technique, (4) optical stylet, and (5) lighted stylet.
A total of 346,861 cases were identified that involved attempted tracheal intubation. A total of 1,009 anesthesia providers managed 1,427 cases of failed direct laryngoscopy followed by subsequent intubation attempts (n = 1,619) that employed one of the five studied intubation rescue techniques. The use of video laryngoscopy resulted in a significantly higher success rate (92%; 95% CI, 90 to 93) than other techniques: supraglottic airway conduit (78%; 95% CI, 68 to 86), flexible bronchoscopic intubation (78%; 95% CI, 71 to 83), lighted stylet (77%; 95% CI, 69 to 83), and optical stylet (67%; 95% CI, 35 to 88). Providers most frequently choose video laryngoscopy (predominantly GlideScope® [Verathon, USA]) to rescue failed direct laryngoscopy (1,122/1,619; 69%), and its use has increased during the study period.
Video laryngoscopy is associated with a high rescue intubation success rate and is more commonly used than other rescue techniques.
Le Doppler Trans-crânien : Outil prédictif ?
Bouzat et al., Anesthesiology, 2016
To assess the performance of transcranial Doppler (TCD) in predicting neurologic worsening after mild to moderate traumatic brain injury.
The authors conducted a prospective observational study across 17 sites. TCD was performed upon admission in 356 patients (Glasgow Coma Score [GCS], 9 to 15) with mild lesions on cerebral computed tomography scan. Normal TCD was defined as a pulsatility index of less than 1.25 and diastolic blood flow velocity higher than 25 cm/s in the two middle cerebral arteries. The primary endpoint was secondary neurologic deterioration on day 7.
Twenty patients (6%) developed secondary neurologic deterioration within the first posttraumatic week. TCD thresholds had 80% sensitivity (95% CI, 56 to 94%) and 79% specificity (95% CI, 74 to 83%) to predict neurologic worsening. The negative predictive values and positive predictive values of TCD were 98% (95% CI, 96 to 100%) and 18% (95% CI, 11to 28%), respectively. In patients with minor traumatic brain injury (GCS, 14 to 15), the sensitivity and specificity of TCD were 91% (95% CI, 59 to 100%) and 80% (95% CI, 75 to 85%), respectively. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of a multivariate predictive model including age and GCS was significantly improved with the adjunction of TCD. Patients with abnormal TCD on admission (n = 86 patients) showed a more altered score for the disability rating scale on day 28 compared to those with normal TCD (n = 257 patients).
TCD measurements upon admission may provide additional information about neurologic outcome after mild to moderate traumatic brain injury. This technique could be useful for in-hospital triage in this context.
Pas de différence entre Anesthésie volatile vs IV en Chirurgie Thoracique ?
Beck-Schimmer et al., Anesthesiology, 2016
One-lung ventilation during thoracic surgery is associated with hypoxia–reoxygenation injury in the deflated and subsequently reventilated lung. Numerous studies have reported volatile anesthesia–induced attenuation of inflammatory responses in such scenarios. If the effect also extends to clinical outcome is yet undetermined. We hypothesized that volatile anesthesia is superior to intravenous anesthesia regarding postoperative complications.
Five centers in Switzerland participated in the randomized controlled trial. Patients scheduled for lung surgery with one-lung ventilation were randomly assigned to one of two parallel arms to receive either propofol or desflurane as general anesthetic. Patients and surgeons were blinded to group allocation. Time to occurrence of the first major complication according to the Clavien-Dindo score was defined as primary (during hospitalization) or secondary (6-month follow-up) endpoint. Cox regression models were used with adjustment for prestratification variables and age.
Of 767 screened patients, 460 were randomized and analyzed (n = 230 for each arm). Demographics, disease and intraoperative characteristics were comparable in both groups. Incidence of major complications during hospitalization was 16.5% in the propofol and 13.0% in the desflurane groups (hazard ratio for desflurane vs. propofol, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.46 to 1.22; P = 0.24). Incidence of major complications within 6 months from surgery was 40.4% in the propofol and 39.6% in the desflurane groups (hazard ratio for desflurane vs. propofol, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.71 to 1.28; P = 0.71).
This is the first multicenter randomized controlled trial addressing the effect of volatile versus intravenous anesthetics on major complications after lung surgery. No difference between the two anesthesia regimens was evident.
Les HEA pour une meilleure perfusion hépatique ?
Itakura et al., Anesthesiology, 2016
Rapid fluid infusion resulting in increased hepatic blood flow may decrease the propofol plasma concentration (Cp) because propofol is a high hepatic extraction drug. The authors investigated the effects of rapid colloid and crystalloid infusions on the propofol Cp during target-controlled infusion.
Thirty-six patients were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 interventions (12 patients per group). At least 30 min after the start of propofol infusion, patients received either a 6% hydroxyethyl starch (HES) solution at 24 ml·kg−1·h−1 or acetated Ringer’s solution at 24 or 2 ml·kg−1·h−1 during the first 20 min. In all groups, acetated Ringer’s solution was infused at 2 ml·kg−1·h−1 during the next 20 min. The propofol Cp was measured every 2.5 min as the primary outcome. Cardiac output, blood volume, and indocyanine green disappearance rate were determined using a pulse dye densitogram analyzer before and after the start of fluid administration. Effective hepatic blood flow was calculated as the blood volume multiplied by the indocyanine green disappearance rate.
The rapid HES infusion significantly decreased the propofol Cp by 22 to 37%, compared to the Cp at 0 min, whereas the rapid or maintenance infusion of acetate Ringer’s solution did not decrease the propofol Cp. Rapid HES infusion, but not acetate Ringer’s solution infusion, increased the effective hepatic blood flow.
Rapid HES infusion increased the effective hepatic blood flow, resulting in a decreased propofol Cp during target-controlled infusion. Rapid HES infusion should be used cautiously as it may decrease the depth of anesthesia.
Le bain de Chlorhexidine diminue le taux d’infections nosocomiales en Réanimation ?
Swan et al., CCM, 2016
To test the hypothesis that compared with daily soap and water bathing, 2% chlorhexidine gluconate bathing every other day for up to 28 days decreases the risk of hospital-acquired catheter-associated urinary tract infection, ventilator-associated pneumonia, incisional surgical site infection, and primary bloodstream infection in surgical ICU patients.
This was a single-center, pragmatic, randomized trial. Patients and clinicians were aware of treatment-group assignment; investigators who determined outcomes were blinded.
Twenty-four–bed surgical ICU at a quaternary academic medical center.
Adults admitted to the surgical ICU from July 2012 to May 2013 with an anticipated surgical ICU stay for 48 hours or more were included.
Patients were randomized to bathing with 2% chlorhexidine every other day alternating with soap and water every other day (treatment arm) or to bathing with soap and water daily (control arm).
Measurements and Main Results
The primary endpoint was a composite outcome of catheter-associated urinary tract infection, ventilator-associated pneumonia, incisional surgical site infection, and primary bloodstream infection. Of 350 patients randomized, 24 were excluded due to prior enrollment in this trial and one withdrew consent. Therefore, 325 were analyzed (164 soap and water versus 161 chlorhexidine). Patients acquired 53 infections. Compared with soap and water bathing, chlorhexidine bathing every other day decreased the risk of acquiring infections (hazard ratio = 0.555; 95% CI, 0.309–0.997; p = 0.049). For patients bathed with soap and water versus chlorhexidine, counts of incident hospital-acquired infections were 14 versus 7 for catheter-associated urinary tract infection, 13 versus 8 for ventilator-associated pneumonia, 6 versus 3 for incisional surgical site infections, and 2 versus 0 for primary bloodstream infection; the effect was consistent across all infections. The absolute risk reduction for acquiring a hospital-acquired infection was 9.0% (95% CI, 1.5–16.4%; p = 0.019). Incidences of adverse skin occurrences were similar (18.9% soap and water vs 18.6% chlorhexidine; p = 0.95).
Compared with soap and water, chlorhexidine bathing every other day decreased the risk of acquiring infections by 44.5% in surgical ICU patients.
Le mythe de l’ulcère de stress ?
Selvanderan et al., CCM, 2016
Congestion des lits en Réa : Impact médico-économique
Kim et al., CCM, 2016
To employ automated bed data to examine whether ICU occupancy influences ICU admission decisions and patient outcomes.
Retrospective study using an instrumental variable to remove biases from unobserved differences in illness severity for patients admitted to ICU.
Fifteen hospitals in an integrated healthcare delivery system in California.
Seventy thousand one hundred thirty-three episodes involving patients admitted via emergency departments to a medical service over a 1-year period between 2008 and 2009.
Measurements and Main Results
A third of patients admitted via emergency department to a medical service were admitted under high ICU congestion (more than 90% of beds occupied). High ICU congestion was associated with a 9% lower likelihood of ICU admission for patients defined as eligible for ICU admission. We further found strong associations between ICU admission and patient outcomes, with a 32% lower likelihood of hospital readmission if the first inpatient unit was an ICU. Similarly, hospital length of stay decreased by 33% and likelihood of transfer to ICU from other units—including ICU readmission if the first unit was an ICU—decreased by 73%.
High ICU congestion is associated with a lower likelihood of ICU admission, which has important operational implications and can affect patient outcomes. By taking advantage of our ability to identify a subset of patients whose ICU admission decisions are affected by congestion, we found that, if congestion were not a barrier and more eligible patients were admitted to ICU, this hospital system could save approximately 7.5 hospital readmissions and 253.8 hospital days per year. These findings could help inform future capacity planning and staffing decisions.
Méta-analyse sur le syndrome dépressif post-Réanimation
Rabiee et al., CCM, 2016
Estimation des GDS artériels à partir de sang veineux
Boulain et al., BJA, 2016
The estimation of arterial blood gas and lactate from central venous blood analysis and pulse oximetry (SpO2) readings has not yet been extensively validated.
In this multicentre, prospective study performed in 590 patients with acute circulatory failure, we measured blood gases and lactate in simultaneous central venous and arterial blood samples at 6 h intervals during the first 24 h after insertion of central venous and arterial catheters. The study population was randomly divided in a 2:1 ratio into model derivation and validation sets. We derived predictive models of arterial pH, carbon dioxide partial pressure, oxygen saturation, and lactate, using clinical characteristics, SpO2, and central venous blood gas values as predictors, and then tested their performance in the validation set.
In the validation set, the agreement intervals between predicted and actual values were −0.078/+0.084 units for arterial pH, −1.32/+1.36 kPa for arterial carbon dioxide partial pressure, −5.15/+4.47% for arterial oxygen saturation, and −1.07/+1.05 mmol litre−1 for arterial lactate (i.e. around two times our predefined clinically tolerable intervals for all variables). This led to ∼5% (or less) of extreme-to-extreme misclassifications, thus giving our predictive models only marginal agreement. Thresholds of predicted variables (as determined from the derivation set) showed high predictive values (consistently >94%), to exclude abnormal arterial values in the validation set.
Using clinical characteristics, SpO2, and central venous blood analysis, we predicted arterial blood gas and lactate values with marginal accuracy in patients with circulatory failure. Further studies are required to establish whether the developed models can be used with acceptable safety.
Revue sur la néphropathie liée aux produits de contraste
Wong et al., BJA, 2016