Biblio du mois : Novembre 2016
Vous l’attendiez avec impatience ? La voici, la biblio du mois de Novembre qui sonne le début de l’hiver et des sapins de Noël…
Comme vous l’avez suivie avec l’AJAR, la réforme du 3ème cycle est en marche et … ça sent le sapin !
En tant qu’Anesthésistes-Réanimateurs, cette biblio montre encore une fois que la Réanimation fait belle et bien partie de notre travail et est indissociable de l’Anesthésie (Ne pas oublier le grand A et le « -« ).
Au programme, des études sur l’ACR adulte et pédiatrique, des recommandations sur la transfusion, de la ventilation avec notamment LUNGSAFE et les études françaises sur l’Optiflow et bien d’autres encore.
On peut faire bouger les choses, comme les facteurs de mortalité modifiables dans le SDRA !
Suivez l’actualité de l’AJAR : https://www.ajar-online.fr/category/actualites/lactu-de-lajar/
Si vous êtes motivés pour rejoindre le dynamisme de l’AJAR, contactez-nous ! On recrute 😉
Effet de l’Hydrocortisone dans le sepsis sévère : NS
Keh et al., JAMA, 2016
Adjunctive hydrocortisone therapy is suggested by the Surviving Sepsis Campaign in refractory septic shock only. The efficacy of hydrocortisone in patients with severe sepsis without shock remains controversial.
To determine whether hydrocortisone therapy in patients with severe sepsis prevents the development of septic shock.
Design, Setting, and Participants
Double-blind, randomized clinical trial conducted from January 13, 2009, to August 27, 2013, with a follow-up of 180 days until February 23, 2014. The trial was performed in 34 intermediate or intensive care units of university and community hospitals in Germany, and it included 380 adult patients with severe sepsis who were not in septic shock.
Patients were randomly allocated 1:1 either to receive a continuous infusion of 200 mg of hydrocortisone for 5 days followed by dose tapering until day 11 (n = 190) or to receive placebo (n = 190).
Main Outcomes and Measures
The primary outcome was development of septic shock within 14 days. Secondary outcomes were time until septic shock, mortality in the intensive care unit or hospital, survival up to 180 days, and assessment of secondary infections, weaning failure, muscle weakness, and hyperglycemia (blood glucose level >150 mg/dL [to convert to millimoles per liter, multiply by 0.0555]).
The intention-to-treat population consisted of 353 patients (64.9% male; mean [SD] age, 65.0 [14.4] years). Septic shock occurred in 36 of 170 patients (21.2%) in the hydrocortisone group and 39 of 170 patients (22.9%) in the placebo group (difference, −1.8%; 95% CI, −10.7% to 7.2%; P = .70). No significant differences were observed between the hydrocortisone and placebo groups for time until septic shock; mortality in the intensive care unit or in the hospital; or mortality at 28 days (15 of 171 patients [8.8%] vs 14 of 170 patients [8.2%], respectively; difference, 0.5%; 95% CI, −5.6% to 6.7%; P = .86), 90 days (34 of 171 patients [19.9%] vs 28 of 168 patients [16.7%]; difference, 3.2%; 95% CI, −5.1% to 11.4%; P = .44), and 180 days (45 of 168 patients [26.8%] vs 37 of 167 patients [22.2%], respectively; difference, 4.6%; 95% CI, −4.6% to 13.7%; P = .32). In the hydrocortisone vs placebo groups, 21.5% vs 16.9% had secondary infections, 8.6% vs 8.5% had weaning failure, 30.7% vs 23.8% had muscle weakness, and 90.9% vs 81.5% had hyperglycemia.
Conclusions and Relevance
Among adults with severe sepsis not in septic shock, use of hydrocortisone compared with placebo did not reduce the risk of septic shock within 14 days. These findings do not support the use of hydrocortisone in these patients.
ACR pédiatriques : l’intubation associée à un moins bon pronostic ?
Andersen et al., JAMA, 2016
Tracheal intubation is common during pediatric in-hospital cardiac arrest, although the relationship between intubation during cardiac arrest and outcomes is unknown.
To determine if intubation during pediatric in-hospital cardiac arrest is associated with improved outcomes.
Design, Setting, and Participants
Observational study of data from United States hospitals in the Get With The Guidelines–Resuscitation registry. Pediatric patients (<18 years) with index in-hospital cardiac arrest between January 2000 and December 2014 were included. Patients who were receiving assisted ventilation, had an invasive airway in place, or both at the time chest compressions were initiated were excluded.
Tracheal intubation during cardiac arrest .
Main Outcomes and Measures
The primary outcome was survival to hospital discharge. Secondary outcomes included return of spontaneous circulation and neurologic outcome. A favorable neurologic outcome was defined as a score of 1 to 2 on the pediatric cerebral performance category score. Patients being intubated at any given minute were matched with patients at risk of being intubated within the same minute (ie, still receiving resuscitation) based on a time-dependent propensity score calculated from multiple patient, event, and hospital characteristics.
The study included 2294 patients; 1308 (57%) were male, and all age groups were represented (median age, 7 months [25th-75th percentiles, 21 days, 4 years]). Of the 2294 included patients, 1555 (68%) were intubated during the cardiac arrest. In the propensity score–matched cohort (n = 2270), survival was lower in those intubated compared with those not intubated (411/1135 [36%] vs 460/1135 [41%]; risk ratio [RR], 0.89 [95% CI, 0.81-0.99]; P = .03). There was no significant difference in return of spontaneous circulation (770/1135 [68%] vs 771/1135 [68%]; RR, 1.00 [95% CI, 0.95-1.06]; P = .96) or favorable neurologic outcome (185/987 [19%] vs 211/983 [21%]; RR, 0.87 [95% CI, 0.75-1.02]; P = .08) between those intubated and not intubated. The association between intubation and decreased survival was observed in the majority of the sensitivity and subgroup analyses, including when accounting for missing data and in a subgroup of patients with a pulse at the beginning of the event.
Conclusions and Relevance
Among pediatric patients with in-hospital cardiac arrest, tracheal intubation during cardiac arrest compared with no intubation was associated with decreased survival to hospital discharge. Although the study design does not eliminate the potential for confounding, these findings do not support the current emphasis on early tracheal intubation for pediatric in-hospital cardiac arrest.
Sédation versus AG pour la thrombectomie d’AVC ischémique
Schonenberger et al., JAMA, 2016
Optimal management of sedation and airway during thrombectomy for acute ischemic stroke is controversial due to lack of evidence from randomized trials.
To assess whether conscious sedation is superior to general anesthesia for early neurological improvement among patients receiving stroke thrombectomy.
Design, Setting, and Participants
SIESTA (Sedation vs Intubation for Endovascular Stroke Treatment), a single-center, randomized, parallel-group, open-label treatment trial with blinded outcome evaluation conducted at Heidelberg University Hospital in Germany (April 2014-February 2016) included 150 patients with acute ischemic stroke in the anterior circulation, higher National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score (>10), and isolated/combined occlusion at any level of the internal carotid or middle cerebral artery.
Patients were randomly assigned to an intubated general anesthesia group (n = 73) or a nonintubated conscious sedation group (n = 77) during stroke thrombectomy.
Main Outcomes and Measures
Primary outcome was early neurological improvement on the NIHSS after 24 hours (0-42 [none to most severe neurological deficits; a 4-point difference considered clinically relevant]). Secondary outcomes were functional outcome by modified Rankin Scale (mRS) after 3 months (0-6 [symptom free to dead]), mortality, and peri-interventional parameters of feasibility and safety.
Results Among 150 patients (60 women [40%]; mean age, 71.5 years; median NIHSS score, 17), primary outcome was not significantly different between the general anesthesia group (mean NIHSS score, 16.8 at admission vs 13.6 after 24 hours; difference, −3.2 points [95% CI, −5.6 to −0.8]) vs the conscious sedation group (mean NIHSS score, 17.2 at admission vs 13.6 after 24 hour; difference, −3.6 points [95% CI, −5.5 to −1.7]); mean difference between groups, −0.4 (95% CI, −3.4 to 2.7; P = .82). Of 47 prespecified secondary outcomes analyzed, 41 showed no significant differences. In the general anesthesia vs the conscious sedation group, substantial patient movement was less frequent (0% vs 9.1%; difference, 9.1%; P = .008), but postinterventional complications were more frequent for hypothermia (32.9% vs 9.1%; P < .001), delayed extubation (49.3% vs 6.5%; P < .001), and pneumonia (13.7% vs 3.9%; P = .03). More patients were functionally independent (unadjusted mRS score, 0 to 2 after 3 months [37.0% in the general anesthesia group vs 18.2% in the conscious sedation group P = .01]). There were no differences in mortality at 3 months (24.7% in both groups).
Conclusions and Relevance
Among patients with acute ischemic stroke in the anterior circulation undergoing thrombectomy, conscious sedation vs general anesthesia did not result in greater improvement in neurological status at 24 hours. The study findings do not support an advantage for the use of conscious sedation.
Recommandations sur la transfusion
Carson et al., JAMA, 2016
Bonus : Etude randomisée sur l’effet de la canneberge sur les infections urinaires
Juthani-Mehta et al., JAMA, 2016
Analyse des bonnes conduites pour la prévention des PAVM
Klompas et al., JAMA Intern Med, 2016
Ventilator bundles, including head-of-bed elevation, sedative infusion interruptions, spontaneous breathing trials, thromboprophylaxis, stress ulcer prophylaxis, and oral care with chlorhexidine gluconate, are ubiquitous, but the absolute and relative value of each bundle component is unclear.
To evaluate associations between individual and collective ventilator bundle components and ventilator-associated events, time to extubation, ventilator mortality, time to hospital discharge, and hospital death.
Design, Setting, and Participants
This retrospective cohort study included all 5539 consecutive patients who underwent mechanical ventilation for at least 3 days from January 1, 2009, to December 31, 2013, at Brigham and Women’s Hospital.
Head-of-bed elevation, sedative infusion interruptions, spontaneous breathing trials, thromboprophylaxis, stress ulcer prophylaxis, and oral care with chlorhexidine.
Main Outcomes and Measures
Hazard ratios (HRs) for ventilator-associated events, extubation alive vs ventilator mortality, and hospital discharge vs hospital death. Effects were modeled using Cox proportional hazards regression and Fine-Gray competing risk models adjusted for patients’ demographic characteristics, comorbidities, unit type, severity of illness, recent procedures, process measure contraindications, day-to-day markers of clinical status, and calendar year.
Of 5539 consecutive patients undergoing mechanical ventilation, 3208 were male (57.9%), 2331 female (42.1%), and the mean (SD) age was 61.2 (16.1) years. Sedative infusion interruptions were associated with less time to extubation (HR, 1.81; 95% CI, 1.54-2.12; P < .001) and a lower hazard for ventilator mortality (HR, 0.51, 95% CI, 0.38-0.68; P < .001). Similar associations were found for spontaneous breathing trials (HR for extubation, 2.48; 95% CI 2.23-2.76; P < .001; HR for mortality, 0.28; 95% CI, 0.20-0.38; P = .001). Spontaneous breathing trials were also associated with lower hazards for ventilator-associated events (HR, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.40-0.76; P < .001). Associations with less time to extubation were found for head-of-bed elevation (HR, 1.38, 95% CI, 1.14-1.68; P = .001) and thromboembolism prophylaxis (HR, 2.57; 95% CI, 1.80-3.66; P < .001) but not ventilator mortality. Oral care with chlorhexidine was associated with an increased risk for ventilator mortality (HR, 1.63; 95% CI, 1.15-2.31; P = .006), and stress ulcer prophylaxis was associated with an increased risk for ventilator-associated pneumonia (HR, 7.69; 95% CI, 1.44-41.10; P = .02).
Conclusions and Relevance
Standard ventilator bundle components vary in their associations with patient-centered outcomes. Head-of-bed elevation, sedative infusion interruptions, spontaneous breathing trials, and thromboembolism prophylaxis appear beneficial, whereas daily oral care with chlorhexidine and stress ulcer prophylaxis may be harmful in some patients.
Effets de l’âge des produits sanguins transfusés sur la mortalité
Heddle et al., NEJM, 2016
Randomized, controlled trials have suggested that the transfusion of blood after prolonged storage does not increase the risk of adverse outcomes among patients, although most of these trials were restricted to high-risk populations and were not powered to detect small but clinically important differences in mortality. We sought to find out whether the duration of blood storage would have an effect on mortality after transfusion in a general population of hospitalized patients.
In this pragmatic, randomized, controlled trial conducted at six hospitals in four countries, we randomly assigned patients who required a red-cell transfusion to receive blood that had been stored for the shortest duration (short-term storage group) or the longest duration (long-term storage group) in a 1:2 ratio. Only patients with type A or O blood were included in the primary analysis, since pilot data suggested that our goal of achieving a difference in the mean duration of blood storage of at least 10 days would not be possible with other blood types. Written informed consent was waived because all the patients received treatment consistent with the current standard of care. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality, which was estimated by means of a logistic-regression model after adjustment for study center and patient blood type.
From April 2012 through October 2015, a total of 31,497 patients underwent randomization. Of these patients, 6761 who did not meet all the enrollment criteria were excluded after randomization. The primary analysis included 20,858 patients with type A or O blood. Of these patients, 6936 were assigned to the short-term storage group and 13,922 to the long-term storage group. The mean storage duration was 13.0 days in the short-term storage group and 23.6 days in the long-term storage group. There were 634 deaths (9.1%) in the short-term storage group and 1213 (8.7%) in the long-term storage group (odds ratio, 1.05; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.95 to 1.16; P=0.34). When the analysis was expanded to include the 24,736 patients with any blood type, the results were similar, with rates of death of 9.1% and 8.8%, respectively (odds ratio, 1.04; 95% CI, 0.95 to 1.14; P=0.38). Additional results were consistent in three prespecified high-risk subgroups (patients undergoing cardiovascular surgery, those admitted to intensive care, and those with cancer).
Among patients in a general hospital population, there was no significant difference in the rate of death among those who underwent transfusion with the freshest available blood and those who underwent transfusion according to the standard practice of transfusing the oldest available blood.
Revue sur la pancréatite aigue
Forsmark et al., NEJM, 2016
Revue sur la maladie de Willebrand
Leebeek et al., NEJM, 2016
Recommandations OMS sur la prévention d’infections de site chirurgical
per et post-opératoire : http://www.thelancet.com/pdfs/journals/laninf/PIIS1473-3099(16)30402-9.pdf
Allegranzi et al., Lancet Infectious Disease, 2016
Sténose de l’IVA : Traitement chirurgical supérieur au traitement radio-interventionnel ?
Makikallio, et al., Lancet, 2016
Comparaison de la réponse de l’hôte entre Pneumopathies Communautaires et Acquises à l’hôpital
Van vught et al., AJRCCM, 2016
Rationale: Preclinical studies suggest that hospitalized patients are susceptible to infections caused by nosocomial respiratory pathogens at least in part because of immune suppression caused by the condition for which they were admitted.
Objectives: We aimed to characterize the systemic host response in hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) when compared with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP).
Methods: We performed a prospective study in two intensive care units (ICUs) in 453 patients with HAP (n = 222) or CAP (n = 231). Immune responses were determined on ICU admission by measuring 19 plasma biomarkers reflecting organ systems implicated in infection pathogenesis (in 192 patients with HAP and 183 patients with CAP) and by applying genome-wide blood gene expression profiling (in 111 patients with HAP and 110 patients with CAP).
Measurements and Main Results: Patients with HAP and CAP presented with similar disease severities and mortality rates did not differ up to 1 year after admission. Plasma proteome analysis revealed largely similar responses, including systemic inflammatory and cytokine responses, and activation of coagulation and the vascular endothelium. The blood leukocyte genomic response was greater than 75% common in patients with HAP and CAP, comprising proinflammatory, antiinflammatory, T-cell signaling, and metabolic pathway gene sets. Patients with HAP showed overexpression of genes involved in cell–cell junction remodeling, adhesion, and diapedesis, which corresponded with lower plasma levels of matrix metalloproteinase-8 and soluble E-selectin. In addition, patients with HAP demonstrated underexpression of a type-I interferon signaling gene signature.
Conclusions: Patients with HAP and CAP present with a largely similar host response at ICU admission.
Effets de l’application des recommandations sur le pronostic neurologique post-ACR
Scales et al., AJRCCM, 2016
Rationale: Predictions about neurologic prognosis that are based on early clinical findings after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) are often inaccurate and may lead to premature decisions to withdraw life-sustaining treatments (LST) in patients who might otherwise survive with good neurologic outcomes.
Objectives: To improve adherence to recommendations for appropriate neurologic prognostication after OHCA and reduce deaths from premature decisions to withdraw LST.
Methods: This was a pragmatic stepped wedge cluster randomized controlled trial evaluating a multifaceted quality intervention (education, pathways, local champions, audit-feedback). The primary outcome was appropriate neurologic prognostication, defined as (1a) no early withdrawal of LST (WLST) (within 72 h) based on estimates of poor neurologic prognosis and (1b) no WLST between 72 hours and 7 days in absence of clinical predictors of poor neurologic prognosis or (2) surviving beyond 7 days. Secondary outcomes were deaths from early WLST and survival with good neurologic outcome.
Measurements and Main Results: Between June 1, 2011, and June 30, 2014, a total of 905 patients with OHCA were enrolled from ICUs of 18 Ontario hospitals. Rates of appropriate neurologic prognostication increased after the intervention (68% vs. 74% patients; odds ratio [OR], 1.79; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01–3.19; P = 0.05). However, rates of survival to hospital discharge (46% vs. 50%; OR, 1.71; 95% CI, 0.97–3.01; P = 0.06) and survival with good neurologic outcome remained similar (38% vs. 43%; OR, 1.43; 95% CI, 0.84–2.86; P = 0.19).
Conclusions: A multicenter quality intervention improved rates of appropriate neurologic prognostication after OHCA but did not increase survival with good neurologic outcome.
Facteurs de mortalité modifiables dans le SDRA
Laffey et al., ICM, 2016
To improve the outcome of the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), one needs to identify potentially modifiable factors associated with mortality.
The large observational study to understand the global impact of severe acute respiratory failure (LUNG SAFE) was an international, multicenter, prospective cohort study of patients with severe respiratory failure, conducted in the winter of 2014 in a convenience sample of 459 ICUs from 50 countries across five continents. A pre-specified secondary aim was to examine the factors associated with outcome. Analyses were restricted to patients (93.1 %) fulfilling ARDS criteria on day 1–2 who received invasive mechanical ventilation.
2377 patients were included in the analysis. Potentially modifiable factors associated with increased hospital mortality in multivariable analyses include lower PEEP, higher peak inspiratory, plateau, and driving pressures, and increased respiratory rate. The impact of tidal volume on outcome was unclear. Having fewer ICU beds was also associated with higher hospital mortality. Non-modifiable factors associated with worsened outcome from ARDS included older age, active neoplasm, hematologic neoplasm, and chronic liver failure. Severity of illness indices including lower pH, lower PaO2/FiO2 ratio, and higher non-pulmonary SOFA score were associated with poorer outcome. Of the 578 (24.3 %) patients with a limitation of life-sustaining therapies or measures decision, 498 (86.0 %) died in hospital. Factors associated with increased likelihood of limitation of life-sustaining therapies or measures decision included older age, immunosuppression, neoplasia, lower pH and increased non-pulmonary SOFA scores.
Higher PEEP, lower peak, plateau, and driving pressures, and lower respiratory rate are associated with improved survival from ARDS.
Pré-oxygénation des patients par Optiflow avant intubation
Jaber et al., ICM, 2016
High-flow nasal cannula oxygen (HFNC) has the potential to provide apnoeic oxygenation. We decided to assess in a proof-of-concept study whether the addition of HFNC to non-invasive ventilation (NIV) could reduce oxygen desaturation during intubation, compared with NIV alone for preoxygenation, in severely hypoxaemic intensive care unit (ICU) patients with respiratory failure.
We conducted a randomised, controlled, single-centre trial with assessor-blinded outcome assessment in patients admitted to the ICU. Hypoxaemic patients requiring orotracheal intubation for respiratory failure were randomised to receive preoxygenation using HFNC [flow = 60 L/min, fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) = 100 %] combined with NIV (pressure support = 10 cmH2O, positive end-expiratory pressure = 5 cmH2O, FiO2 = 100 %) in the intervention group or NIV alone in the reference group prior to intubation. The primary outcome was the lowest oxygen saturation (SpO2) during the intubation procedure. Secondary outcomes were intubation-related complications and ICU mortality.
Between July 2015 and February 2016, we randomly assigned 25 and 24 patients to the intervention and reference groups, respectively. In both groups the main reasons for respiratory failure were pneumonia and ARDS. During the intubation procedure, the lowest SpO2 values were significantly higher in the intervention group than in the reference group [100 (95–100) % vs. 96 (92–99) %, p = 0.029]. After exclusion of two patients from analysis for protocol violation, no (0 %) patients in the intervention group and five (21 %) patients in the reference group had SpO2 below 80 % (p = 0.050). We recorded no significant difference between the groups in intubation-related complications or ICU mortality.
A novel strategy for preoxygenation in hypoxaemic patients, adding HFNC for apnoeic oxygenation to NIV prior to orotracheal intubation, may be more effective in reducing the severity of oxygen desaturation than the reference method using NIV alone.
Optiflow inutile en post-extubation après une chirurgie majeure ?
Futier et al., ICM, 2016
High-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) oxygen therapy is attracting increasing interest in acute medicine as an alternative to standard oxygen therapy; however, its use to prevent hypoxaemia after major abdominal surgery has not been evaluated. Our trial was designed to close this evidence gap.
A multicentre randomised controlled trial was carried out at three university hospitals in France. Adult patients at moderate to high risk of postoperative pulmonary complications who had undergone major abdominal surgery using lung-protective ventilation were randomly assigned using a computer-generated sequence to receive either HFNC oxygen therapy or standard oxygen therapy (low-flow oxygen delivered via nasal prongs or facemask) directly after extubation. The primary endpoint was absolute risk reduction (ARR) for hypoxaemia at 1 h after extubation and after treatment discontinuation. Secondary outcomes included occurrence of postoperative pulmonary complications within 7 days after surgery, the duration of hospital stay, and in-hospital mortality. The analysis was performed on data from the modified intention-to-treat population. This trial was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01887015).
Between 6 November 2013 and 1 March 2015, 220 patients were randomly assigned to receive either HFNC (n = 108) or standard oxygen therapy (n = 112); all of these patients completed follow-up. The median duration of the allocated treatment was 16 h (interquartile range 14–18 h) with standard oxygen therapy and 15 h (interquartile range 12–18) with HFNC therapy. Twenty-three (21 %) of the 108 patients treated with HFNC 1 h after extubation and 29 (27 %) of the 108 patients after treatment discontinuation had postextubation hypoxaemia, compared with 27 (24 %) and 34 (30 %) of the 112 patients treated with standard oxygen (ARR 4, 95 % CI –8 to 15 %; p = 0.57; adjusted relative risk [RR] 0.87, 95 % CI 0.53–1.43; p = 0.58). Over the 7-day postoperative follow-up period, there was no statistically significant difference between the groups in the proportion of patients who remained free of any pulmonary complication (ARR 7, 95 % CI –6 to 20 %; p = 0.40). Other secondary outcomes also did not differ significantly between the two groups.
Among patients undergoing major abdominal surgery, early preventive application of high-flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy after extubation did not result in improved pulmonary outcomes compared with standard oxygen therapy.
Revue sur les infections de tissus mous en Réanimation
Burnham et al, ICM, 2016
ECMO V-A + Ballon de contre-pulsion dans le choc cardiogénique : meilleur pronostic ?
Shotaro et al., CCM, 2016
The role of intraaortic balloon pumping combined with venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in cardiogenic shock patients remains unknown. This study investigated the effect of intraaortic balloon pumping combined with venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation on reducing mortality of cardiogenic shock patients.
Retrospective cohort study.
The Japanese Diagnosis Procedure Combination national inpatient database.
Cardiogenic shock adult patients receiving peripheral venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation at admission were identified in the Japanese Diagnosis Procedure Combination database from July 1, 2010, to March 31, 2013.
Measurements and Main Results
The primary outcomes were all-cause 28-day mortality and in-hospital mortality, and the secondary outcome was the proportion of patients weaned from venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, using propensity score matching. Eligible patients (n = 1,650) were divided into the intraaortic balloon pumping combined with venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation group (n = 604) and the venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation–alone group (n = 1,064). Propensity score matching created matched cohort of 533 pairs. In the propensity score–matched analysis, all-cause 28-day mortality and in-hospital mortality were significantly lower in the intraaortic balloon pumping combined with venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation group than the venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation–alone group (48.4% vs 58.2%; p = 0.001 and 55.9% vs 64.5%; p = 0.004, respectively). In Cox regression, there was a significant difference in survival between the intraaortic balloon pumping combined with venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation group and the venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation–alone group (hazard ratio, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.63–0.86; p < 0.001). The proportion of patients weaned from venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation was significantly higher in the intraaortic balloon pumping combined with venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation group than in the venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation–alone group (82.6% vs 73.4%; p < 0.001).
In a national inpatient database, intraaortic balloon pumping combined with venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation was associated with improved mortality and successful weaning from venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Randomized controlled studies are required to confirm the mortality-reducing effect of intraaortic balloon pumping combined with venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.
Revue et méta-analyse sur les interventions pour améliorer le sommeil en réanimation
Flannery et al., CCM, 2016
Recherche en ventilation sur simulateur : Effets d’une haute PEP
Chikhani et al., BJA, 2016
Mesure non-invasive prédictive d’IRA en pédiatrie post-chirurgie cardiaque ?
Neunhoffer et al., BJA, 2016
Background: The pathophysiology of acute kidney injury (AKI) after cardiopulmonary bypass surgery for congenital heart disease is not completely understood. The aim of this study was to carry out a prospective analysis of the diagnostic value of non-invasive monitoring of renal oxygenation and microcirculation by combining laser Doppler flowmetry and tissue spectrometry.
Methods: In 50 neonates and infants who underwent repair (n = 31) or neonatal palliation (n = 19) of congenital heart disease with cardiopulmonary bypass, renal oxygenation, and microcirculatory flow, the approximate renal metabolic rate of oxygen and Doppler-based renal resistive index were determined after surgery. Correlations between these parameters and the occurrence of AKI according to the Pediatric Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss, End Stage Renal Disease criteria were investigated.
Results: Acute kidney injury occurred in 45% of patients after repair and in 32% after palliation. Renal oxygenation was significantly lower and the approximate renal metabolic rate of oxygen significantly higher in patients with AKI (P < 0.05). The microcirculatory flow was significantly higher in patients with AKI after neonatal palliation (P < 0.05), whereas renal resistive index was significantly higher in patients with AKI after repair (P < 0.05). The sensitivity of renal oxygenation, metabolic rate of oxygen, microcirculation, and resistive index in predicting AKI was 78–80, 73–78, 64–83, and 71–74%, respectively, with a specificity of 63–65, 54–75, 64–78, and 46–74% (area under the curve: 0.73–0.75, 0.68–0.83, 0.52–0.68, and 0.60–0.75), respectively.
Conclusions: Monitoring of renal oxygen metabolism allows early prediction of AKI in infants after cardiac surgery. In contrast, renal resistive index does not allow prediction of AKI after neonatal palliation with aortopulmonary shunt establishment.
Dexmedetomidine intra-nasal comme sédatif de secours en pédiatrie ?
Zhang et al., Anesthesiology, 2016
Background: The median effective dose (ED50) of intranasal dexmedetomidine after failed chloral hydrate sedation has not been described for children. This study aims to determine the ED50 of intranasal dexmedetomidine for rescue sedation in children aged 1 to 36 months, who were inadequately sedated by chloral hydrate administration during magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
Methods: This study was performed on 120 children, who were 1 to 36 months old and underwent MRI scanning. Intranasal dexmedetomidine was administered as a rescue sedative to children not adequately sedated after the initial oral dose of chloral hydrate (50 mg/kg). Children were stratified into four age groups. ED50values were estimated from the up-and-down method of Dixon and Massey and probit regression. Other variables included induction time, time to wake up, vital signs, oxygen saturation, MRI scanning time, and recovery characteristics.
Results: ED50 of intranasal dexmedetomidine for rescue sedation was 0.4 μg/kg (95% CI, 0.34 to 0.50) in children aged 1 to 6 months, 0.5 μg/kg (95% CI, 0.48 to 0.56) in children aged 7 to 12 months, 0.9 μg/kg (95% CI, 0.83 to 0.89) in children aged 13 to 24 months, and 1.0 μg/kg (95% CI, 0.94 to 1.07) in children aged 25 to 36 months. There were no significant differences in sedation induction time or time to wake up between the different age groups. Additionally, no significant adverse hemodynamic or hypoxemic effects were noted.
Conclusions: The authors determined the ED50 for rescue sedation using intranasal dexmedetomidine after failed chloral hydrate sedation in children. It was found that ED50 increases with advancing age during the first 3 yr of life.