Biblio du mois : Janvier 2018

29 janvier 2018La Biblio du mois



1ère biblio de l’année 2018 qui se veut être une Biblio multidisciplinaire pour les DESAR et pour les MIR avec de la neuro (AVC ischémique et les Silver hours avec une approche Anesthésique incluse et les recommandations américaines), de la cardio (Fermeture d’auricule et du Xarelto en veux-tu en voilà), de la cancéro-hémato, de la gastro, de la nutrition (résultats de Nutriréa-2), de la pneumo/ventilation (dysfonction diaphragmatique), de l’infectio, etc.

On notera de nombreuses revues et méta-analyses intéressantes pour se donner une inspiration sur sa future thèse/mémoire mais aussi pour confirmer les études des années précédentes.

On voit par cette biblio que la CHIP s’impose peu à peu et qu’il va nous falloir nous habituer à leur prise en charge péri-opératoire jusqu’aux bienfaits de la grasse matinée en chirurgie cardiaque.

On notera également les recommandations européennes sur la thromboprophylaxie péri-opératoire.

Petites astuces pour mieux profiter de notre biblio :





Thrombectomie jusqu’à H+24 d’un AVC ischémique : efficace ?


Nogueira et al., NEJM, 2018

DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1706442




The effect of endovascular thrombectomy that is performed more than 6 hours after the onset of ischemic stroke is uncertain. Patients with a clinical deficit that is disproportionately severe relative to the infarct volume may benefit from late thrombectomy.


We enrolled patients with occlusion of the intracranial internal carotid artery or proximal middle cerebral artery who had last been known to be well 6 to 24 hours earlier and who had a mismatch between the severity of the clinical deficit and the infarct volume, with mismatch criteria defined according to age (<80 years or ≥80 years). Patients were randomly assigned to thrombectomy plus standard care (the thrombectomy group) or to standard care alone (the control group). The coprimary end points were the mean score for disability on the utility-weighted modified Rankin scale (which ranges from 0 [death] to 10 [no symptoms or disability]) and the rate of functional independence (a score of 0, 1, or 2 on the modified Rankin scale, which ranges from 0 to 6, with higher scores indicating more severe disability) at 90 days.


A total of 206 patients were enrolled; 107 were assigned to the thrombectomy group and 99 to the control group. At 31 months, enrollment in the trial was stopped because of the results of a prespecified interim analysis. The mean score on the utility-weighted modified Rankin scale at 90 days was 5.5 in the thrombectomy group as compared with 3.4 in the control group (adjusted difference [Bayesian analysis], 2.0 points; 95% credible interval, 1.1 to 3.0; posterior probability of superiority, >0.999), and the rate of functional independence at 90 days was 49% in the thrombectomy group as compared with 13% in the control group (adjusted difference, 33 percentage points; 95% credible interval, 24 to 44; posterior probability of superiority, >0.999). The rate of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage did not differ significantly between the two groups (6% in the thrombectomy group and 3% in the control group, P=0.50), nor did 90-day mortality (19% and 18%, respectively; P=1.00).


Among patients with acute stroke who had last been known to be well 6 to 24 hours earlier and who had a mismatch between clinical deficit and infarct, outcomes for disability at 90 days were better with thrombectomy plus standard care than with standard care alone.

Avec quel type d’Anesthésie ?



Simonsen et al., JAMA Neurol, 2018


Importance  Endovascular therapy (EVT) is the standard of care for select patients who had a stroke caused by a large vessel occlusion in the anterior circulation, but there is uncertainty regarding the optimal anesthetic approach during EVT. Observational studies suggest that general anesthesia (GA) is associated with worse outcomes compared with conscious sedation (CS).

Objective  To examine the effect of type of anesthesia during EVT on infarct growth and clinical outcome.

Design, Setting, and Participants  The General or Local Anesthesia in Intra Arterial Therapy (GOLIATH) trial was a single-center prospective, randomized, open-label, blinded end-point evaluation that enrolled patients from March 12, 2015, to February 2, 2017. Although the trial screened 1501 patients, it included 128 consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke caused by large vessel occlusions in the anterior circulation within 6 hours of onset; 1372 patients who did not fulfill inclusion criteria and 1 who did not provide consent were excluded. Primary analysis was unadjusted and according to the intention-to-treat principle.

Interventions  Patients were randomized to either the GA group or the CS group (1:1 allocation) before EVT.

Main Outcomes and Measures  The primary end point was infarct growth between magnetic resonance imaging scans performed before EVT and 48 to 72 hours after EVT. The hypothesis formulated before data collection was that patients who were under CS would have less infarct growth.

Results  Of 128 patients included in the trial, 65 were randomized to GA, and 63 were randomized to CS. For the entire cohort, the mean (SD) age was 71.4 (11.4) years, and 62 (48.4%) were women. Baseline demographic and clinical variables were balanced between the GA and CS treatment arms. The median National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score was 18 (interquartile range [IQR], 14-21). Four patients (6.3%) in the CS group were converted to the GA group. Successful reperfusion was significantly higher in the GA arm than in the CS arm (76.9% vs 60.3%; P = .04). The difference in the volume of infarct growth among patients treated under GA or CS did not reach statistical significance (median [IQR] growth, 8.2 [2.2-38.6] mL vs 19.4 [2.4-79.0] mL; P = .10). There were better clinical outcomes in the GA group, with an odds ratio for a shift to a lower modified Rankin Scale score of 1.91 (95% CI, 1.03-3.56).

Conclusions and Relevance  For patients who underwent thrombectomy for acute ischemic stroke caused by large vessel occlusions in the anterior circulation, GA did not result in worse tissue or clinical outcomes compared with CS.



Recommandations sur la prise en charge des AVC ischémiques


Powers et al., Stroke, 2018



Transfert du nerf pour une meilleure récupération ?

Zheng et al., NEJM, 2018

DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1615208



Spastic limb paralysis due to injury to a cerebral hemisphere can cause long-term disability. We investigated the effect of grafting the contralateral C7 nerve from the nonparalyzed side to the paralyzed side in patients with spastic arm paralysis due to chronic cerebral injury.


We randomly assigned 36 patients who had had unilateral arm paralysis for more than 5 years to undergo C7 nerve transfer plus rehabilitation (18 patients) or to undergo rehabilitation alone (18 patients). The primary outcome was the change from baseline to month 12 in the total score on the Fugl–Meyer upper-extremity scale (scores range from 0 to 66, with higher scores indicating better function).


The mean increase in Fugl–Meyer score in the paralyzed arm was 17.7 in the surgery group and 2.6 in the control group (difference, 15.1; 95% confidence interval, 12.2 to 17.9; P<0.001). With regard to improvements in spasticity as measured on the Modified Ashworth Scale (an assessment of five joints, each scored from 0 to 5, with higher scores indicating more spasticity), the smallest between-group difference was in the thumb, with 6, 9, and 3 patients in the surgery group having a 2-unit improvement, a 1-unit improvement, or no change, respectively, as compared with 1, 6, and 7 patients in the control group (P=0.02). Transcranial magnetic stimulation and functional imaging showed connectivity between the ipsilateral hemisphere and the paralyzed arm. There were no significant differences from baseline to month 12 in power, tactile threshold, or two-point discrimination in the hand on the side of the donor graft.


In this single-center trial involving patients who had had unilateral arm paralysis due to chronic cerebral injury for more than 5 years, transfer of the C7 nerve from the nonparalyzed side to the side of the arm that was paralyzed was associated with a greater improvement in function and reduction of spasticity than rehabilitation alone over a period of 12 months. Physiological connectivity developed between the ipsilateral cerebral hemisphere and the paralyzed hand.


Association entre infarctus du myocarde et la grippe ?


Kwong et al., NEJM, 2018

DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1702090



Acute myocardial infarction can be triggered by acute respiratory infections. Previous studies have suggested an association between influenza and acute myocardial infarction, but those studies used nonspecific measures of influenza infection or study designs that were susceptible to bias. We evaluated the association between laboratory-confirmed influenza infection and acute myocardial infarction.


We used the self-controlled case-series design to evaluate the association between laboratory-confirmed influenza infection and hospitalization for acute myocardial infarction. We used various high-specificity laboratory methods to confirm influenza infection in respiratory specimens, and we ascertained hospitalization for acute myocardial infarction from administrative data. We defined the “risk interval” as the first 7 days after respiratory specimen collection and the “control interval” as 1 year before and 1 year after the risk interval.


We identified 364 hospitalizations for acute myocardial infarction that occurred within 1 year before and 1 year after a positive test result for influenza. Of these, 20 (20.0 admissions per week) occurred during the risk interval and 344 (3.3 admissions per week) occurred during the control interval. The incidence ratio of an admission for acute myocardial infarction during the risk interval as compared with the control interval was 6.05 (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.86 to 9.50). No increased incidence was observed after day 7. Incidence ratios for acute myocardial infarction within 7 days after detection of influenza B, influenza A, respiratory syncytial virus, and other viruses were 10.11 (95% CI, 4.37 to 23.38), 5.17 (95% CI, 3.02 to 8.84), 3.51 (95% CI, 1.11 to 11.12), and 2.77 (95% CI, 1.23 to 6.24), respectively.


We found a significant association between respiratory infections, especially influenza, and acute myocardial infarction.

Effets à long terme du Budesonide inhalé chez les enfants atteints de dysplasie bronchopulmonaire


Bassler et al., NEJM, 2018

DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1708831


The long-term effects on neurodevelopment of the use of inhaled glucocorticoids in extremely preterm infants for the prevention or treatment of bronchopulmonary dysplasia are uncertain.


We randomly assigned 863 infants (gestational age, 23 weeks 0 days to 27 weeks 6 days) to receive early (within 24 hours after birth) inhaled budesonide or placebo. The prespecified secondary long-term outcome was neurodevelopmental disability among survivors, defined as a composite of cerebral palsy, cognitive delay (a Mental Development Index score of <85 [1 SD below the mean of 100] on the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, Second Edition, with higher scores on the scale indicating better performance), deafness, or blindness at a corrected age of 18 to 22 months.


Adequate data on the prespecified composite long-term outcome were available for 629 infants. Of these infants, 148 (48.1%) of 308 infants assigned to budesonide had neurodevelopmental disability, as compared with 165 (51.4%) of 321 infants assigned to placebo (relative risk, adjusted for gestational age, 0.93; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.80 to 1.09; P=0.40). There was no significant difference in any of the individual components of the prespecified outcome. There were more deaths in the budesonide group than in the placebo group (82 [19.9%] of 413 infants vs. 58 [14.5%] of 400 infants for whom vital status was available; relative risk, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.86; P=0.04).


Among surviving extremely preterm infants, the rate of neurodevelopmental disability at 2 years did not differ significantly between infants who received early inhaled budesonide for the prevention of bronchopulmonary dysplasia and those who received placebo, but the mortality rate was higher among those who received budesonide.

Intérêt de la CHIP dans le cancer ovarien : Préparons-nous !



van Driel et al., NEJM, 2018

DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1708618




Treatment of newly diagnosed advanced-stage ovarian cancer typically involves cytoreductive surgery and systemic chemotherapy. We conducted a trial to investigate whether the addition of hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) to interval cytoreductive surgery would improve outcomes among patients who were receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy for stage III epithelial ovarian cancer.


In a multicenter, open-label, phase 3 trial, we randomly assigned 245 patients who had at least stable disease after three cycles of carboplatin (area under the curve of 5 to 6 mg per milliliter per minute) and paclitaxel (175 mg per square meter of body-surface area) to undergo interval cytoreductive surgery either with or without administration of HIPEC with cisplatin (100 mg per square meter). Randomization was performed at the time of surgery in cases in which surgery that would result in no visible disease (complete cytoreduction) or surgery after which one or more residual tumors measuring 10 mm or less in diameter remain (optimal cytoreduction) was deemed to be feasible. Three additional cycles of carboplatin and paclitaxel were administered postoperatively. The primary end point was recurrence-free survival. Overall survival and the side-effect profile were key secondary end points.


In the intention-to-treat analysis, events of disease recurrence or death occurred in 110 of the 123 patients (89%) who underwent cytoreductive surgery without HIPEC (surgery group) and in 99 of the 122 patients (81%) who underwent cytoreductive surgery with HIPEC (surgery-plus-HIPEC group) (hazard ratio for disease recurrence or death, 0.66; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.50 to 0.87; P=0.003). The median recurrence-free survival was 10.7 months in the surgery group and 14.2 months in the surgery-plus-HIPEC group. At a median follow-up of 4.7 years, 76 patients (62%) in the surgery group and 61 patients (50%) in the surgery-plus-HIPEC group had died (hazard ratio, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.48 to 0.94; P=0.02). The median overall survival was 33.9 months in the surgery group and 45.7 months in the surgery-plus-HIPEC group. The percentage of patients who had adverse events of grade 3 or 4 was similar in the two groups (25% in the surgery group and 27% in the surgery-plus-HIPEC group, P=0.76).


Among patients with stage III epithelial ovarian cancer, the addition of HIPEC to interval cytoreductive surgery resulted in longer recurrence-free survival and overall survival than surgery alone and did not result in higher rates of side effects.

Revue sur le choc hémorragique


Cannon, NEJM, 2018

DOI: 10.1056/NEJMra1705649



Revue sur les alcools toxiques


Kraut et Mullins, NEJM, 2018

DOI: 10.1056/NEJMra1615295



Revue sur le déficit en G6PD


Luzzatto et Arese, NEJM, 2018

DOI: 10.1056/NEJMra1708111




Revue sur la sclérose en plaques


Reich et al., NEJM, 2018

DOI: 10.1056/NEJMra1401483



Intérêt d’une autogreffe de moelle dans la sclérodermie ?



Sullivan et al., NEJM, 2018

DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1703327



Le MGUS, pas si insignifiant ?


Kyle et al., NEJM, 2018

DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1709974




Un anesthésiste par salle et il y reste ?



Jones et al., JAMA, 2018




Importance  Handing over the care of a patient from one anesthesiologist to another occurs during some surgeries and might increase the risk of adverse outcomes.

Objective  To assess whether complete handover of intraoperative anesthesia care is associated with higher likelihood of mortality or major complications compared with no handover of care.

Design, Setting, and Participants  A retrospective population-based cohort study (April 1, 2009-March 31, 2015 set in the Canadian province of Ontario) of adult patients aged 18 years and older undergoing major surgeries expected to last at least 2 hours and requiring a hospital stay of at least 1 night.

Exposure  Complete intraoperative handover of anesthesia care from one physician anesthesiologist to another compared with no handover of anesthesia care.

Main Outcomes and Measures  The primary outcome was a composite of all-cause death, hospital readmission, or major postoperative complications, all within 30 postoperative days. Secondary outcomes were the individual components of the primary outcome. Inverse probability of exposure weighting based on the propensity score was used to estimate adjusted exposure effects.

Results  Of the 313 066 patients in the cohort, 56% were women; the mean (SD) age was 60 (16) years; 49% of surgeries were performed in academic centers; 72% of surgeries were elective; and the median duration of surgery was 182 minutes (interquartile [IQR] range, 124-255). A total of 5941 (1.9%) patients underwent surgery with complete handover of anesthesia care. The percentage of patients undergoing surgery with a handover of anesthesiology care progressively increased each year of the study, reaching 2.9% in 2015. In the unweighted sample, the primary outcome occurred in 44% of the complete handover group compared with 29% of the no handover group. After adjustment, complete handovers were statistically significantly associated with an increased risk of the primary outcome (adjusted risk difference [aRD], 6.8% [95% CI, 4.5% to 9.1%]; P < .001), all-cause death (aRD, 1.2% [95% CI, 0.5% to 2%]; P = .002), and major complications (aRD, 5.8% [95% CI, 3.6% to 7.9%]; P < .001), but not with hospital readmission within 30 days of surgery (aRD, 1.2% [95% CI, −0.3% to 2.7%]; P = .11).

Conclusions and Relevance  Among adults undergoing major surgery, complete handover of intraoperative anesthesia care compared with no handover was associated with a higher risk of adverse postoperative outcomes. These findings may support limiting complete anesthesia handovers.




Fermeture de l’auricule en per-opératoire de chirurgie cardiaque pour les patients en FA ?



Friedman et al., JAMA, 2018




Importance  The left atrial appendage is a key site of thrombus formation in atrial fibrillation (AF) and can be occluded or removed at the time of cardiac surgery. There is limited evidence regarding the effectiveness of surgical left atrial appendage occlusion (S-LAAO) for reducing the risk of thromboembolism.

Objective  To evaluate the association of S-LAAO vs no receipt of S-LAAO with the risk of thromboembolism among older patients undergoing cardiac surgery.

Design, Setting, and Participants  Retrospective cohort study of a nationally representative Medicare-linked cohort from the Society of Thoracic Surgeons Adult Cardiac Surgery Database (2011-2012). Patients aged 65 years and older with AF undergoing cardiac surgery (coronary artery bypass grafting [CABG], mitral valve surgery with or without CABG, or aortic valve surgery with or without CABG) with and without concomitant S-LAAO were followed up until December 31, 2014.

Exposures  S-LAAO vs no S-LAAO.

Main Outcomes and Measures  The primary outcome was readmission for thromboembolism (stroke, transient ischemic attack, or systemic embolism) at up to 3 years of follow-up, as defined by Medicare claims data. Secondary end points included hemorrhagic stroke, all-cause mortality, and a composite end point (thromboembolism, hemorrhagic stroke, or all-cause mortality).

Results  Among 10 524 patients undergoing surgery (median age, 76 years; 39% female; median CHA2DS2-VASc score, 4), 3892 (37%) underwent S-LAAO. Overall, at a mean follow-up of 2.6 years, thromboembolism occurred in 5.4%, hemorrhagic stroke in 0.9%, all-cause mortality in 21.5%, and the composite end point in 25.7%. S-LAAO, compared with no S-LAAO, was associated with lower unadjusted rates of thromboembolism (4.2% vs 6.2%), all-cause mortality (17.3% vs 23.9%), and the composite end point (20.5% vs 28.7%) but no significant difference in rates of hemorrhagic stroke (0.9% vs 0.9%). After inverse probability–weighted adjustment, S-LAAO was associated with a significantly lower rate of thromboembolism (subdistribution hazard ratio [HR], 0.67; 95% CI, 0.56-0.81; P < .001), all-cause mortality (HR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.79-0.97; P = .001), and the composite end point (HR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.76-0.91; P < .001) but not hemorrhagic stroke (subdistribution HR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.53-1.32; P = .44). S-LAAO, compared with no S-LAAO, was associated with a lower risk of thromboembolism among patients discharged without anticoagulation (unadjusted rate, 4.2% vs 6.0%; adjusted subdistribution HR, 0.26; 95% CI, 0.17-0.40; P < .001), but not among patients discharged with anticoagulation (unadjusted rate, 4.1% vs 6.3%; adjusted subdistribution HR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.56-1.39; P = .59).

Conclusions and Relevance  Among older patients with AF undergoing concomitant cardiac surgery, S-LAAO, compared with no S-LAAO, was associated with a lower risk of readmission for thromboembolism over 3 years. These findings support the use of S-LAAO, but randomized trials are necessary to provide definitive evidence.



Association de la mortalité intra-hospitalière et le type d’anticoagulation chez les patients atteints d’hémorragie intra-cérébrale ?



Inohara et al., JAMA, 2018




Importance  Although non–vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) are increasingly used to prevent thromboembolic disease, there are limited data on NOAC-related intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH).

Objective  To assess the association between preceding oral anticoagulant use (warfarin, NOACs, and no oral anticoagulants [OACs]) and in-hospital mortality among patients with ICH.

Design, Setting, and Participants  Retrospective cohort study of 141 311 patients with ICH admitted from October 2013 to December 2016 to 1662 Get With The Guidelines–Stroke hospitals.

Exposures  Anticoagulation therapy before ICH, defined as any use of OACs within 7 days prior to hospital arrival.

Main Outcomes and Measures  In-hospital mortality.

Results  Among 141 311 patients with ICH (mean [SD] age, 68.3 [15.3] years; 48.1% women), 15 036 (10.6%) were taking warfarin and 4918 (3.5%) were taking NOACs preceding ICH, and 39 585 (28.0%) and 5783 (4.1%) were taking concomitant single and dual antiplatelet agents, respectively. Patients with prior use of warfarin or NOACs were older and had higher prevalence of atrial fibrillation and prior stroke. Acute ICH stroke severity (measured by the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale) was not significantly different across the 3 groups (median, 9 [interquartile range, 2-21] for warfarin, 8 [2-20] for NOACs, and 8 [2-19] for no OACs). The unadjusted in-hospital mortality rates were 32.6% for warfarin, 26.5% for NOACs, and 22.5% for no OACs. Compared with patients without prior use of OACs, the risk of in-hospital mortality was higher among patients with prior use of warfarin (adjusted risk difference [ARD], 9.0% [97.5% CI, 7.9% to 10.1%]; adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.62 [97.5% CI, 1.53 to 1.71]) and higher among patients with prior use of NOACs (ARD, 3.3% [97.5% CI, 1.7% to 4.8%]; AOR, 1.21 [97.5% CI, 1.11-1.32]). Compared with patients with prior use of warfarin, patients with prior use of NOACs had a lower risk of in-hospital mortality (ARD, −5.7% [97.5% CI, −7.3% to −4.2%]; AOR, 0.75 [97.5% CI, 0.69 to 0.81]). The difference in mortality between NOAC-treated patients and warfarin-treated patients was numerically greater among patients with prior use of dual antiplatelet agents (32.7% vs 47.1%; ARD, −15.0% [95.5% CI, −26.3% to −3.8%]; AOR, 0.50 [97.5% CI, 0.29 to 0.86]) than among those taking these agents without prior antiplatelet therapy (26.4% vs 31.7%; ARD, −5.0% [97.5% CI, −6.8% to −3.2%]; AOR, 0.77 [97.5% CI, 0.70 to 0.85]), although the interaction P value (.07) was not statistically significant.

Conclusions and Relevance  Among patients with ICH, prior use of NOACs or warfarin was associated with higher in-hospital mortality compared with no OACs. Prior use of NOACs, compared with prior use of warfarin, was associated with lower risk of in-hospital mortality.



Obésité –> Articles du JAMA : Bypass versus Sleeve-gastrectomie



Disparités ethniques sur les listes de transplantations rénales de donneurs vivants aux USA ?



Purnell et al., JAMA, 2018





Nutrition entérale versus parentérale chez les patients en état de choc (NUTRIREA-2)



Reignier et al., Lancet, 2018



Whether the route of early feeding affects outcomes of patients with severe critical illnesses is controversial. We hypothesised that outcomes were better with early first-line enteral nutrition than with early first-line parenteral nutrition.


In this randomised, controlled, multicentre, open-label, parallel-group study (NUTRIREA-2 trial) done at 44 French intensive-care units (ICUs), adults (18 years or older) receiving invasive mechanical ventilation and vasopressor support for shock were randomly assigned (1:1) to either parenteral nutrition or enteral nutrition, both targeting normocaloric goals (20–25 kcal/kg per day), within 24 h after intubation. Randomisation was stratified by centre using permutation blocks of variable sizes. Given that route of nutrition cannot be masked, blinding of the physicians and nurses was not feasible. Patients receiving parenteral nutrition could be switched to enteral nutrition after at least 72 h in the event of shock resolution (no vasopressor support for 24 consecutive hours and arterial lactate <2 mmol/L). The primary endpoint was mortality on day 28 after randomisation in the intention-to-treat-population. This study is registered with, number NCT01802099.


After the second interim analysis, the independent Data Safety and Monitoring Board deemed that completing patient enrolment was unlikely to significantly change the results of the trial and recommended stopping patient recruitment. Between March 22, 2013, and June 30, 2015, 2410 patients were enrolled and randomly assigned; 1202 to the enteral group and 1208 to the parenteral group. By day 28, 443 (37%) of 1202 patients in the enteral group and 422 (35%) of 1208 patients in the parenteral group had died (absolute difference estimate 2·0%; [95% CI −1·9 to 5·8]; p=0·33). Cumulative incidence of patients with ICU-acquired infections did not differ between the enteral group (173 [14%]) and the parenteral group (194 [16%]; hazard ratio [HR] 0·89 [95% CI 0·72–1·09]; p=0·25). Compared with the parenteral group, the enteral group had higher cumulative incidences of patients with vomiting (406 [34%] vs 246 [20%]; HR 1·89 [1·62–2·20]; p<0·0001), diarrhoea (432 [36%] vs 393 [33%]; 1·20 [1·05–1·37]; p=0·009), bowel ischaemia (19 [2%] vs five [<1%]; 3·84 [1·43–10·3]; p=0·007), and acute colonic pseudo-obstruction (11 [1%] vs three [<1%]; 3·7 [1·03–13·2; p=0·04).


In critically ill adults with shock, early isocaloric enteral nutrition did not reduce mortality or the risk of secondary infections but was associated with a greater risk of digestive complications compared with early isocaloric parenteral nutrition.



Nécrosectomie pancréatique par voie endoscopique versus par voie chirurgicale



van Brunschot et al., Lancet, 2018




Infected necrotising pancreatitis is a potentially lethal disease and an indication for invasive intervention. The surgical step-up approach is the standard treatment. A promising alternative is the endoscopic step-up approach. We compared both approaches to see whether the endoscopic step-up approach was superior to the surgical step-up approach in terms of clinical and economic outcomes.


In this multicentre, randomised, superiority trial, we recruited adult patients with infected necrotising pancreatitis and an indication for invasive intervention from 19 hospitals in the Netherlands. Patients were randomly assigned to either the endoscopic or the surgical step-up approach. The endoscopic approach consisted of endoscopic ultrasound-guided transluminal drainage followed, if necessary, by endoscopic necrosectomy. The surgical approach consisted of percutaneous catheter drainage followed, if necessary, by video-assisted retroperitoneal debridement. The primary endpoint was a composite of major complications or death during 6-month follow-up. Analyses were by intention to treat. This trial is registered with the ISRCTN registry, number ISRCTN09186711.


Between Sept 20, 2011, and Jan 29, 2015, we screened 418 patients with pancreatic or extrapancreatic necrosis, of which 98 patients were enrolled and randomly assigned to the endoscopic step-up approach (n=51) or the surgical step-up approach (n=47). The primary endpoint occurred in 22 (43%) of 51 patients in the endoscopy group and in 21 (45%) of 47 patients in the surgery group (risk ratio [RR] 0·97, 95% CI 0·62–1·51; p=0·88). Mortality did not differ between groups (nine [18%] patients in the endoscopy group vs six [13%] patients in the surgery group; RR 1·38, 95% CI 0·53–3·59, p=0·50), nor did any of the major complications included in the primary endpoint.


In patients with infected necrotising pancreatitis, the endoscopic step-up approach was not superior to the surgical step-up approach in reducing major complications or death. The rate of pancreatic fistulas and length of hospital stay were lower in the endoscopy group. The outcome of this trial will probably result in a shift to the endoscopic step-up approach as treatment preference.



Chirurgie cardiaque plutôt l’après-midi que le matin ?



Montaigne et al., Lancet, 2018




On-pump cardiac surgery provokes a predictable perioperative myocardial ischaemia–reperfusion injury which is associated with poor clinical outcomes. We determined the occurrence of time-of-the-day variation in perioperative myocardial injury in patients undergoing aortic valve replacement and its molecular mechanisms.


We studied the incidence of major adverse cardiac events in a prospective observational single-centre cohort study of patients with severe aortic stenosis and preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (>50%) who were referred to our cardiovascular surgery department at Lille University Hospital (Lille, France) for aortic valve replacement and underwent surgery in the morning or afternoon. Patients were matched into pairs by propensity score. We also did a randomised study, in which we evaluated perioperative myocardial injury and myocardial samples of patients randomly assigned (1:1) via permuted block randomisation (block size of eight) to undergo isolated aortic valve replacement surgery either in the morning or afternoon. We also evaluated human and rodent myocardium in ex-vivo hypoxia–reoxygenation models and did a transcriptomic analysis in myocardial samples from the randomised patients to identify the signalling pathway(s) involved. The primary objective of the study was to assess whether myocardial tolerance of ischaemia–reperfusion differed depending on the timing of aortic valve replacement surgery (morning vs afternoon), as measured by the occurrence of major adverse cardiovascular events (cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, and admission to hospital for acute heart failure). The randomised study is registered with, number NCT02812901.


In the cohort study (n=596 patients in matched pairs who underwent either morning surgery [n=298] or afternoon surgery [n=298]), during the 500 days following aortic valve replacement, the incidence of major adverse cardiac events was lower in the afternoon surgery group than in the morning group: hazard ratio 0·50 (95% CI 0·32–0·77; p=0·0021). In the randomised study, 88 patients were randomly assigned to undergo surgery in the morning (n=44) or afternoon (n=44); perioperative myocardial injury assessed with the geometric mean of perioperative cardiac troponin T release was significantly lower in the afternoon group than in the morning group (estimated ratio of geometric means for afternoon to morning of 0·79 [95% CI 0·68–0·93; p=0·0045]). Ex-vivo analysis of human myocardium revealed an intrinsic morning–afternoon variation in hypoxia–reoxygenation tolerance, concomitant with transcriptional alterations in circadian gene expression with the nuclear receptor Rev-Erbα being highest in the morning. In a mouse Langendorff model of hypoxia–reoxygenation myocardial injury, Rev-Erbα gene deletion or antagonist treatment reduced injury at the time of sleep-to-wake transition, through an increase in the expression of the ischaemia–reperfusion injury modulator CDKN1a/p21.


Perioperative myocardial injury is transcriptionally orchestrated by the circadian clock in patients undergoing aortic valve replacement, and Rev-Erbα antagonism seems to be a pharmacological strategy for cardioprotection. Afternoon surgery might provide perioperative myocardial protection and lead to improved patient outcomes compared with morning surgery.



Rivaroxaban + Aspirine pour les coronaropathes ?



Connolly et al., Lancet, 2018




Rivaroxaban + Aspirine pour les artériopathes ?



Anand et al., Lancet, 2018




Angor stable : pas d’intérêt à une revascularisation versus un traitement médical ?



Al-Lamee et al., Lancet, 2018



Symptomatic relief is the primary goal of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in stable angina and is commonly observed clinically. However, there is no evidence from blinded, placebo-controlled randomised trials to show its efficacy.


ORBITA is a blinded, multicentre randomised trial of PCI versus a placebo procedure for angina relief that was done at five study sites in the UK. We enrolled patients with severe (≥70%) single-vessel stenoses. After enrolment, patients received 6 weeks of medication optimisation. Patients then had pre-randomisation assessments with cardiopulmonary exercise testing, symptom questionnaires, and dobutamine stress echocardiography. Patients were randomised 1:1 to undergo PCI or a placebo procedure by use of an automated online randomisation tool. After 6 weeks of follow-up, the assessments done before randomisation were repeated at the final assessment. The primary endpoint was difference in exercise time increment between groups. All analyses were based on the intention-to-treat principle and the study population contained all participants who underwent randomisation. This study is registered with, number NCT02062593.


ORBITA enrolled 230 patients with ischaemic symptoms. After the medication optimisation phase and between Jan 6, 2014, and Aug 11, 2017, 200 patients underwent randomisation, with 105 patients assigned PCI and 95 assigned the placebo procedure. Lesions had mean area stenosis of 84·4% (SD 10·2), fractional flow reserve of 0·69 (0·16), and instantaneous wave-free ratio of 0·76 (0·22). There was no significant difference in the primary endpoint of exercise time increment between groups (PCI minus placebo 16·6 s, 95% CI −8·9 to 42·0, p=0·200). There were no deaths. Serious adverse events included four pressure-wire related complications in the placebo group, which required PCI, and five major bleeding events, including two in the PCI group and three in the placebo group.


In patients with medically treated angina and severe coronary stenosis, PCI did not increase exercise time by more than the effect of a placebo procedure. The efficacy of invasive procedures can be assessed with a placebo control, as is standard for pharmacotherapy.



Stent actif > Stent nu même chez les > 75 ans ?


Varenne et al., Lancet, 2018




Elderly patients regularly receive bare-metal stents (BMS) instead of drug-eluting stents (DES) to shorten the duration of double antiplatelet therapy (DAPT). The aim of this study was to compare outcomes between these two types of stents with a short duration of DAPT in such patients.


In this randomised single-blind trial, we recruited patients from 44 centres in nine countries. Patients were eligible if they were aged 75 years or older; had stable angina, silent ischaemia, or an acute coronary syndrome; and had at least one coronary artery with a stenosis of at least 70% (≥50% for the left main stem) deemed eligible for percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Exclusion criteria were indication for myocardial revascularisation by coronary artery bypass grafting; inability to tolerate, obtain, or comply with DAPT; requirement for additional surgery; non-cardiac comorbidities with a life expectancy of less than 1 year; previous haemorrhagic stroke; allergy to aspirin or P2Y12 inhibitors; contraindication to P2Y12 inhibitors; and silent ischaemia of less than 10% of the left myocardium with a fractional flow reserve of 0·80 or higher. After the intended duration of DAPT was recorded (1 month for patients with stable presentation and 6 months for those with unstable presentation), patients were randomly allocated (1:1) by a central computer system (blocking used with randomly selected block sizes [two, four, eight, or 16]; stratified by site and antiplatelet agent) to either a DES or similar BMS in a single-blind fashion (ie, patients were masked), but those assessing outcomes were masked. The primary outcome was to compare major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (ie, a composite of all-cause mortality, myocardial infarction, stroke, or ischaemia-driven target lesion revascularisation) between groups at 1 year in the intention-to-treat population, assessed at 30 days, 180 days, and 1 year. This trial is registered with, number NCT02099617.


Between May 21, 2014, and April 16, 2016, we randomly assigned 1200 patients (596 [50%] to the DES group and 604 [50%] to the BMS group). The primary endpoint occurred in 68 (12%) patients in the DES group and 98 (16%) in the BMS group (relative risk [RR] 0·71 [95% CI 0·52–0·94]; p=0·02). Bleeding complications (26 [5%] in the DES group vs 29 [5%] in the BMS group; RR 0·90 [0·51–1·54]; p=0·68) and stent thrombosis (three [1%] vs eight [1%]; RR 0·38 [0·00–1·48]; p=0·13) at 1 year were infrequent in both groups.


Among elderly patients who have PCI, a DES and a short duration of DAPT are better than BMS and a similar duration of DAPT with respect to the occurrence of all-cause mortality, myocardial infarction, stroke, and ischaemia-driven target lesion revascularisation. A strategy of combination of a DES to reduce the risk of subsequent repeat revascularisations with a short BMS-like DAPT regimen to reduce the risk of bleeding event is an attractive option for elderly patients who have PCI.



Revue sur la morbi-mortalité chez les patients en précarité (SDF, prisonniers, travailleurs du sexe)



Méta-analyse sur le délai d’administration d’anti-fibrinolytiques dans l’efficacité du contrôle des hémorragies aigues


Gayet-Ageron et al., Lancet, 2018






Association du SDRA et de symptômes psychiatriques à 5 ans ?



Bienvenu et al., ICM, 2018




We aimed to characterize anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms over 5-year follow-up after acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and determine risk factors for prolonged psychiatric morbidity.


This prospective cohort study enrolled patients from 13 medical and surgical intensive care units in four hospitals, with follow-up at 3, 6, 12, 24, 36, 48, and 60 months post-ARDS. Trained research staff administered the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) (scores ≥ 8 on anxiety and depression subscales indicating substantial symptoms) and the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R, scores ≥ 1.6 indicating substantial PTSD symptoms) at each follow-up visit.


Of 196 consenting survivors, 186 (95%) completed HADS and IES-R assessments; 96 (52%) had any continuous or recurring (prolonged) symptoms, and 71 (38%), 59 (32%), and 43 (23%) had prolonged anxiety, depression, and PTSD symptoms, respectively (median total durations 33–39 months, 71–100% of observed follow-up time). Prolonged psychiatric symptoms tended to co-occur across domains; the most common morbidity pattern involved substantial symptoms in all three domains. Worse pre-ARDS mental health, including prior depression and psychological distress in the period immediately preceding ARDS, was strongly associated with prolonged post-ARDS psychiatric morbidity across symptom domains.


Clinically significant and long-lasting symptoms of anxiety, depression, and PTSD are common in the first 5 years after ARDS. In-hospital screening of psychiatric history, including recent anxiety and depression symptoms, may be useful for long-term mental health treatment planning after ARDS.



Pose échoguidée de KTc aussi en réanimation pédiatrique


Oulego-Erroz et al., ICM, 2018



Méta-analyse : pas d’intérêt de viser > 65 mmHg de PAM ?



Lamontagne et al., ICM, 2018




Guidelines for shock recommend mean arterial pressure (MAP) targets for vasopressor therapy of at least 65 mmHg and, until recently, suggested that patients with underlying chronic hypertension and atherosclerosis may benefit from higher targets. We conducted an individual patient-data meta-analysis of recent trials to determine if patient variables modify the effect of different MAP targets.


We searched the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for randomized controlled trials of higher versus lower blood pressure targets for vasopressor therapy in adult patients in shock (until November 2017). After obtaining individual patient data from both eligible trials, we used a modified version of the Cochrane Collaboration’s instrument to assess the risk of bias of included trials. The primary outcome was 28-day mortality.


Included trials enrolled 894 patients. Controlling for trial and site, the OR for 28-day mortality for the higher versus lower MAP targets was 1.15 (95% CI 0.87–1.52). Treatment effect varied by duration of vasopressors before randomization (interaction p = 0.017), but not by chronic hypertension, congestive heart failure or age. Risk of death increased in higher MAP groups among patients on vasopressors > 6 h before randomization (OR 3.00, 95% CI 1.33–6.74).


Targeting higher blood pressure targets may increase mortality in patients who have been treated with vasopressors for more than 6 h. Lower blood pressure targets were not associated with patient-important adverse events in any subgroup, including chronically hypertensive patients.



Méta-analyse sur la prévention d’ulcères de stress en réanimation



Alhazzani et al., ICM, 2018




Attention à la dysfonction diaphragmatique induite par la ventilation


Goligher et al., AJRCCM, 2018



Rationale: Diaphragm dysfunction worsens outcomes in mechanically ventilated patients, but the clinical impact of potentially preventable changes in diaphragm structure and function caused by mechanical ventilation is unknown.

Objectives: To determine whether diaphragm atrophy developing during mechanical ventilation leads to prolonged ventilation.

Methods: Diaphragm thickness was measured daily by ultrasound in adults requiring invasive mechanical ventilation; inspiratory effort was assessed by thickening fraction. The primary outcome was time to liberation from ventilation. Secondary outcomes included complications (reintubation, tracheostomy, prolonged ventilation, or death). Associations were adjusted for age, severity of illness, sepsis, sedation, neuromuscular blockade, and comorbidity.

Measurements and Main Results: Of 211 patients enrolled, 191 had two or more diaphragm thickness measurements. Thickness decreased more than 10% in 78 patients (41%) by median Day 4 (interquartile range, 3–5). Development of decreased thickness was associated with a lower daily probability of liberation from ventilation (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.69; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.54–0.87; per 10% decrease), prolonged ICU admission (adjusted duration ratio, 1.71; 95% CI, 1.29–2.27), and a higher risk of complications (adjusted odds ratio, 3.00; 95% CI, 1.34–6.72). Development of increased thickness (n = 47; 24%) also predicted prolonged ventilation (adjusted duration ratio, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.00–1.90). Decreasing thickness was related to abnormally low inspiratory effort; increasing thickness was related to excessive effort. Patients with thickening fraction between 15% and 30% (similar to breathing at rest) during the first 3 days had the shortest duration of ventilation.

Conclusions: Diaphragm atrophy developing during mechanical ventilation strongly impacts clinical outcomes. Targeting an inspiratory effort level similar to that of healthy subjects at rest might accelerate liberation from ventilation.




Facteurs prédictifs d’intubation différents selon VS sous oxygène standard ou sous Optiflow ?


Frat et al., CCM, 2018

doi: 10.1097/CCM.0000000000002818


Objectives: In patients with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure, noninvasive ventilation and high-flow nasal cannula oxygen are alternative strategies to conventional oxygen therapy. Endotracheal intubation is frequently needed in these patients with a risk of delay, and early predictors of failure may help clinicians to decide early. We aimed to identify factors associated with intubation in patients with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure treated with different noninvasive oxygenation techniques.

Design: Post hoc analysis of a randomized clinical trial.

Setting: Twenty-three ICUs.

Patients: Patients with a respiratory rate greater than 25 breaths/min and a PaO2/FIO2 ratio less than or equal to 300 mm Hg.

Intervention: Patients were treated with standard oxygen, high-flow nasal cannula oxygen, or noninvasive ventilation.

Measurement and Main Results: Respiratory variables one hour after treatment initiation. Under standard oxygen, patients with a respiratory rate greater than or equal to 30 breaths/min were more likely to need intubation (odds ratio, 2.76; 95% CI, 1.13–6.75; p = 0.03). One hour after high-flow nasal cannula oxygen initiation, increased heart rate was the only factor associated with intubation. One hour after noninvasive ventilation initiation, a PaO2/FIO2 ratio less than or equal to 200 mm Hg and a tidal volume greater than 9 mL/kg of predicted body weight were independent predictors of intubation (adjusted odds ratio, 4.26; 95% CI, 1.62–11.16; p = 0.003 and adjusted odds ratio, 3.14; 95% CI, 1.22–8.06; p = 0.02, respectively). A tidal volume above 9 mL/kg during noninvasive ventilation remained independently associated with 90-day mortality.

Conclusions: In patients with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure breathing spontaneously, the respiratory rate was a predictor of intubation under standard oxygen, but not under high-flow nasal cannula oxygen or noninvasive ventilation. A PaO2/FIO2 below 200 mm Hg and a high tidal volume greater than 9 mL/kg were the two strong predictors of intubation under noninvasive ventilation.



Epidémiologie des virus respiratoires chez les patients intubés ventilés



van Someren Gréve et al., CCM, 2018

doi: 10.1097/CCM.0000000000002752



Objectives: The presence of respiratory viruses and the association with outcomes were assessed in invasively ventilated ICU patients, stratified by admission diagnosis.

Design: Prospective observational study.

Setting: Five ICUs in the Netherlands.

Patients: Between September 1, 2013, and April 30, 2014, 1,407 acutely admitted and invasively ventilated patients were included.

Interventions: None.

Measurements and Main Results: Nasopharyngeal swabs and tracheobronchial aspirates were collected upon intubation and tested for 14 respiratory viruses. Out of 1,407 patients, 156 were admitted because of a severe acute respiratory infection and 1,251 for other reasons (non–severe acute respiratory infection). Respiratory viruses were detected in 28.8% of severe acute respiratory infection patients and 17.0% in non–severe acute respiratory infection (p < 0.001). In one third, viruses were exclusively detected in tracheobronchial aspirates. Rhinovirus and human metapneumovirus were more prevalent in severe acute respiratory infection patients (9.6% and 2.6% vs 4.5 and 0.2%; p = 0.006 and p < 0.001). In both groups, there were no associations between the presence of viruses and the number of ICU-free days at day 28, crude mortality, and mortality in multivariate regression analyses.

Conclusions: Respiratory viruses are frequently detected in acutely admitted and invasively ventilated patients. Rhinovirus and human metapneumovirus are more frequently found in severe acute respiratory infection patients. Detection of respiratory viruses is not associated with worse clinically relevant outcomes in the studied cohort of patients.


Intérêt d’un programme « Zero PAVM » ?


Álvarez-Lerma, et al., CCM, 2018

doi: 10.1097/CCM.0000000000002736




Objectives: The “Pneumonia Zero” project is a nationwide multimodal intervention based on the simultaneous implementation of a comprehensive evidence-based bundle measures to prevent ventilator-associated pneumonia in critically ill patients admitted to the ICU.

Design: Prospective, interventional, and multicenter study.

Setting: A total of 181 ICUs throughout Spain.

Patients: All patients admitted for more than 24 hours to the participating ICUs between April 1, 2011, and December 31, 2012.

Intervention: Ten ventilator-associated pneumonia prevention measures were implemented (seven were mandatory and three highly recommended). The database of the National ICU-Acquired Infections Surveillance Study (Estudio Nacional de Vigilancia de Infecciones Nosocomiales [ENVIN]) was used for data collection. Ventilator-associated pneumonia rate was expressed as incidence density per 1,000 ventilator days. Ventilator-associated pneumonia rates from the incorporation of the ICUs to the project, every 3 months, were compared with data of the ENVIN registry (April–June 2010) as the baseline period. Ventilator-associated pneumonia rates were adjusted by characteristics of the hospital, including size, type (public or private), and teaching (postgraduate) or university-affiliated (undergraduate) status.

Measurements and Main Results: The 181 participating ICUs accounted for 75% of all ICUs in Spain. In a total of 171,237 ICU admissions, an artificial airway was present on 505,802 days (50.0% of days of stay in the ICU). A total of 3,474 ventilator-associated pneumonia episodes were diagnosed in 3,186 patients. The adjusted ventilator-associated pneumonia incidence density rate decreased from 9.83 (95% CI, 8.42–11.48) per 1,000 ventilator days in the baseline period to 4.34 (95% CI, 3.22–5.84) after 19–21 months of participation.

Conclusions: Implementation of the bundle measures included in the “Pneumonia Zero” project resulted in a significant reduction of more than 50% of the incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia in Spanish ICUs. This reduction was sustained 21 months after implementation.



Méta-analyse : Diminution de la mortalité avec perfusion continue de Tazocilline ?



Rhodes et al., CCM, 2018

doi: 10.1097/CCM.0000000000002836




Méta-analyse : admission le week-end en réa de moins bon pronostic qu’en semaine ?


Galloway et al., CCM, 2018

doi: 10.1097/CCM.0000000000002837



Méta-analyse sur la driving pressure



Aoyama et al., CCM, 2018

doi: 10.1097/CCM.0000000000002838



Méta-analyse : Seuil transfusionnel différent selon réanimation médicale ou péri-opératoire ?


Chong et al., CCM, 2018

doi: 10.1097/CCM.0000000000002873



Recommandations européennes sur la prévention thromboemboliques péri-opératoire


ESA VTE Guidelines Task Force, EJA, 2018




Du Zinc pour diminuer les douleurs trachéales post-intubation ?



Farhang et Grondin, Anesthesia & Analgesia, 2018

DOI: 10.1213/ANE.0000000000002494




Postoperative sore throat (POST) is commonly seen after endotracheal intubation, and oral zinc prevents oral mucositis associated with chemotherapy. This study is designed to evaluate the effects of administration of zinc lozenges on POST.


Seventy-nine patients undergoing low- or moderate-risk surgery with endotracheal intubation were randomly assigned into 2 groups: Control group received placebo and zinc group received 40-mg zinc lozenges 30 minutes preoperatively. Patients were assessed for incidence and severity (4-point scale, 0-3) of POST at 0, 2, 4, and 24 hours postoperatively. The primary outcome was incidence of POST at 4 hours after surgery. The secondary outcomes were the incidence of POST at 0, 2, and 24 hours and the severity of POST.


At 4 hours, there was a significantly lower incidence of POST in the zinc group, 7%, than the control group, 29% (P = .046). The incidence of POST at 0 hour was 0% in zinc group and 24% in control group (P = .004). The highest incidence of POST occurred at the second hour after surgery, with the rate of 10% in the zinc group and 34% in the control group (P = .0495). The incidence of POST at 24 hours was 13% in zinc group and 24% in control group (not significant). The severity of POST was significantly lower in the zinc group for mild (P = .003) and moderate (P = .004) POST.


The administration of a single dose of 40-mg zinc lozenge 30 minutes preoperatively is effective to reduce both incidence of POST in the first 4 hours and severity of mild and moderate POST in the immediate postoperative period.



Epidémiologie des douleurs chroniques post-sternotomie



Kleiman et al., RAPM, 2018,_Risk.2.aspx

doi: 10.1097/AAP.0000000000000663




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