Biblio du mois : Décembre 2016
Bonne année 2017 et tous nos meilleurs vœux !
Et oui un premier vœu se réalise déjà… La Biblio du mois de l’AJAR !
Quoi de mieux qu’une belle biblio exhaustive pour amorcer cette nouvelle année ?
Au programme, des études hautes en couleur dont la fameuse étude qui a fait le buzz (c’est le moment de vous rattraper) sur une prise en charge qui serait meilleure avec des médecins de sexe féminin… A bon entendeur ! Et puisque nous sommes attentifs au bien-être de nos chers adhérents et lecteurs, de belles études qui s’intéressent à la santé des étudiants en médecine …
Attention, bien d’autres articles très intéressants mais ce n’est rien par rapport à la suite que l’on vous prépare à l’AJAR pour cette année !
Aftershock spécial congrès SRLF, Soirée Hypnose (complet), Soirée Hémodynamique et le Brunch Pubmed/Zotero (inscriptions à venir) et surtout …
La création du Syndicat National des Jeunes Anesthésistes-Réanimateurs (SNJAR) pour tous vous représenter et faire porter votre parole aux plus hautes sphères (R3C oblige) !
Suivez-nous en nous ajoutant dans vos favoris !
Hypothermie thérapeutique dans l’état de mal convulsif : NS
HYBERNATUS group, NEJM, 2016
Convulsive status epilepticus often results in permanent neurologic impairment. We evaluated the effect of induced hypothermia on neurologic outcomes in patients with convulsive status epilepticus.
In a multicenter trial, we randomly assigned 270 critically ill patients with convulsive status epilepticus who were receiving mechanical ventilation to hypothermia (32 to 34°C for 24 hours) in addition to standard care or to standard care alone; 268 patients were included in the analysis. The primary outcome was a good functional outcome at 90 days, defined as a Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) score of 5 (range, 1 to 5, with 1 representing death and 5 representing no or minimal neurologic deficit). The main secondary outcomes were mortality at 90 days, progression to electroencephalographically (EEG) confirmed status epilepticus, refractory status epilepticus on day 1, “super-refractory” status epilepticus (resistant to general anesthesia), and functional sequelae on day 90.
A GOS score of 5 occurred in 67 of 138 patients (49%) in the hypothermia group and in 56 of 130 (43%) in the control group (adjusted common odds ratio, 1.22; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.75 to 1.99; P=0.43). The rate of progression to EEG-confirmed status epilepticus on the first day was lower in the hypothermia group than in the control group (11% vs. 22%; odds ratio, 0.40; 95% CI, 0.20 to 0.79; P=0.009), but there were no significant differences between groups in the other secondary outcomes. Adverse events were more frequent in the hypothermia group than in the control group.
In this trial, induced hypothermia added to standard care was not associated with significantly better 90-day outcomes than standard care alone in patients with convulsive status epilepticus.
Association d’une hausse de mortalité avec le roulement des internes
(qui n’est pas sans rappeler l’étude de notre ancien membre actif de l’AJAR, Benjamin Chousterman : http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0162552)
Denson et al., JAMA, 2016
Shift-to-shift transitions in care among house staff are associated with adverse events. However, the association between end-of-rotation transition (in which care of the patient is transferred) and adverse events is uncertain.
To examine the association of end-of-rotation house staff transitions with mortality among hospitalized patients.
Design, Setting, and Participants
Retrospective multicenter cohort study of patients admitted to internal medicine services (N = 230 701) at 10 university-affiliated US Veterans Health Administration hospitals (2008-2014).
Transition patients (defined as those admitted prior to an end-of-rotation transition who died or were discharged within 7 days following transition) were stratified by type of transition (intern only, resident only, or intern + resident) and compared with all other discharges (control). An alternative analysis comparing admissions within 2 days before transition with admissions on the same 2 days 2 weeks later was also conducted.
Main Outcomes and Measures
The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. Secondary outcomes included 30-day and 90-day mortality and readmission rates. A difference-in-difference analysis assessed whether outcomes changed after the 2011 Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) duty hour regulations. Adjustments included age, sex, race/ethnicity, month, year, length of stay, comorbidities, and hospital.
Among 230 701 patient discharges (mean age, 65.6 years; men, 95.8%; median length of stay, 3.0 days), 25 938 intern-only, 26 456 resident-only, and 11 517 intern + resident end-of-rotation transitions occurred. Overall mortality was 2.18% in-hospital, 9.45% at 30 days, and 14.43% at 90 days. Adjusted hospital mortality was significantly greater in transition vs control patients for the intern-only group (3.5% vs 2.0%; odds ratio [OR], 1.12 [95% CI, 1.03-1.21]) and the intern + resident group (4.0% vs 2.1%; OR, 1.18 [95% CI, 1.06-1.33]), but not for the resident-only group (3.3% vs 2.0%; OR, 1.07 [95% CI, 0.99-1.16]). Adjusted 30-day and 90-day mortality rates were greater in all transition vs control comparisons (30-day mortality: intern-only group, 14.5% vs 8.8%, OR, 1.17 [95% CI, 1.13-1.22]; resident-only group, 13.8% vs 8.9%, OR, 1.11 [95% CI, 1.04-1.18]; intern + resident group, 15.5% vs 9.1%, OR, 1.21 [95% CI, 1.12-1.31]; 90-day mortality: intern-only group, 21.5% vs 13.5%, OR, 1.14 [95% CI, 1.10-1.19]; resident-only group, 20.9% vs 13.6%, OR, 1.10 [95% CI, 1.05-1.16]; intern + resident group, 22.8% vs 14.0%, OR, 1.17 [95% CI, 1.11-1.23]). Duty hour changes were associated with greater adjusted hospital mortality for transition patients in the intern-only group and intern + resident group than for controls (intern-only: OR, 1.11 [95% CI, 1.02-1.21]; intern + resident: OR, 1.17 [95% CI, 1.02-1.34]). The alternative analyses did not demonstrate any significant differences in mortality between transition and control groups.
Conclusions and Relevance
Among patients admitted to internal medicine services in 10 Veterans Affairs hospitals, end-of-rotation transition in care was associated with significantly higher in-hospital mortality in an unrestricted analysis that included most patients, but not in an alternative restricted analysis. The association was stronger following institution of ACGME duty hour regulations.
Méta-analyse sur la prévalence de Dépression chez les étudiants en Médecine
Rotenstein et al., JAMA, 2016
Medical students are at high risk for depression and suicidal ideation. However, the prevalence estimates of these disorders vary between studies.
To estimate the prevalence of depression, depressive symptoms, and suicidal ideation in medical students.
Data Sources and Study Selection
Systematic search of EMBASE, ERIC, MEDLINE, psycARTICLES, and psycINFO without language restriction for studies on the prevalence of depression, depressive symptoms, or suicidal ideation in medical students published before September 17, 2016. Studies that were published in the peer-reviewed literature and used validated assessment methods were included.
Data Extraction and Synthesis
Information on study characteristics; prevalence of depression or depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation; and whether students who screened positive for depression sought treatment was extracted independently by 3 investigators. Estimates were pooled using random-effects meta-analysis. Differences by study-level characteristics were estimated using stratified meta-analysis and meta-regression.
Main Outcomes and Measures
Point or period prevalence of depression, depressive symptoms, or suicidal ideation as assessed by validated questionnaire or structured interview.
Depression or depressive symptom prevalence data were extracted from 167 cross-sectional studies (n = 116 628) and 16 longitudinal studies (n = 5728) from 43 countries. All but 1 study used self-report instruments. The overall pooled crude prevalence of depression or depressive symptoms was 27.2% (37 933/122 356 individuals; 95% CI, 24.7% to 29.9%, I2 = 98.9%). Summary prevalence estimates ranged across assessment modalities from 9.3% to 55.9%. Depressive symptom prevalence remained relatively constant over the period studied (baseline survey year range of 1982-2015; slope, 0.2% increase per year [95% CI, −0.2% to 0.7%]). In the 9 longitudinal studies that assessed depressive symptoms before and during medical school (n = 2432), the median absolute increase in symptoms was 13.5% (range, 0.6% to 35.3%). Prevalence estimates did not significantly differ between studies of only preclinical students and studies of only clinical students (23.7% [95% CI, 19.5% to 28.5%] vs 22.4% [95% CI, 17.6% to 28.2%]; P = .72). The percentage of medical students screening positive for depression who sought psychiatric treatment was 15.7% (110/954 individuals; 95% CI, 10.2% to 23.4%, I2 = 70.1%). Suicidal ideation prevalence data were extracted from 24 cross-sectional studies (n = 21 002) from 15 countries. All but 1 study used self-report instruments. The overall pooled crude prevalence of suicidal ideation was 11.1% (2043/21 002 individuals; 95% CI, 9.0% to 13.7%, I2 = 95.8%). Summary prevalence estimates ranged across assessment modalities from 7.4% to 24.2%.
Conclusions and Relevance
In this systematic review, the summary estimate of the prevalence of depression or depressive symptoms among medical students was 27.2% and that of suicidal ideation was 11.1%. Further research is needed to identify strategies for preventing and treating these disorders in this population.
Un environnement propice à l’apprentissage participe au bien-être des étudiants en Médecine ?
Wasson et al., JAMA, 2016
Concerns exist about the current quality of undergraduate medical education and its effect on students’ well-being.
To identify best practices for undergraduate medical education learning environment interventions that are associated with improved emotional well-being of students.
Learning environment interventions were identified by searching the biomedical electronic databases Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, and ERIC from database inception dates to October 2016. Studies examined any intervention designed to promote medical students’ emotional well-being in the setting of a US academic medical school, with an outcome defined as students’ reports of well-being as assessed by surveys, semistructured interviews, or other quantitative methods.
Data Extraction and Synthesis
Two investigators independently reviewed abstracts and full-text articles. Data were extracted into tables to summarize results. Study quality was assessed by the Medical Education Research Study Quality Instrument (MERQSI), which has a possible range of 5 to 18; higher scores indicate higher design and methods quality and a score of 14 or higher indicates a high-quality study.
Twenty-eight articles including at least 8224 participants met eligibility criteria. Study designs included single-group cross-sectional or posttest only (n = 10), single-group pretest/posttest (n = 2), nonrandomized 2-group (n = 13), and randomized clinical trial (n = 3); 89.2% were conducted at a single site, and the mean MERSQI score for all studies was 10.3 (SD, 2.11; range, 5-13). Studies encompassed a variety of interventions, including those focused on pass/fail grading systems (n = 3; mean MERSQI score, 12.0), mental health programs (n = 4; mean MERSQI score, 11.9), mind-body skills programs (n = 7; mean MERSQI score, 11.3), curriculum structure (n = 3; mean MERSQI score, 9.5), multicomponent program reform (n = 5; mean MERSQI score, 9.4), wellness programs (n = 4; mean MERSQI score, 9.0), and advising/mentoring programs (n = 3; mean MERSQI score, 8.2).
Conclusions and Relevance
In this systematic review, limited evidence suggested that some specific learning environment interventions were associated with improved emotional well-being among medical students. However, the overall quality of the evidence was low, highlighting the need for high-quality medical education research.
Les patients mieux soignés par des médecins de sexe féminin ?
Tsugawa et al., JAMA Intern Med, 2016
Studies have found differences in practice patterns between male and female physicians, with female physicians more likely to adhere to clinical guidelines and evidence-based practice. However, whether patient outcomes differ between male and female physicians is largely unknown.
To determine whether mortality and readmission rates differ between patients treated by male or female physicians.
Design, Setting, and Participants
We analyzed a 20% random sample of Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries 65 years or older hospitalized with a medical condition and treated by general internists from January 1, 2011, to December 31, 2014. We examined the association between physician sex and 30-day mortality and readmission rates, adjusted for patient and physician characteristics and hospital fixed effects (effectively comparing female and male physicians within the same hospital). As a sensitivity analysis, we examined only physicians focusing on hospital care (hospitalists), among whom patients are plausibly quasi-randomized to physicians based on the physician’s specific work schedules. We also investigated whether differences in patient outcomes varied by specific condition or by underlying severity of illness.
Main Outcomes and Measures
Patients’ 30-day mortality and readmission rates.
A total of 1 583 028 hospitalizations were used for analyses of 30-day mortality (mean [SD] patient age, 80.2 [8.5] years; 621 412 men and 961 616 women) and 1 540 797 were used for analyses of readmission (mean [SD] patient age, 80.1 [8.5] years; 602 115 men and 938 682 women). Patients treated by female physicians had lower 30-day mortality (adjusted mortality, 11.07% vs 11.49%; adjusted risk difference, –0.43%; 95% CI, –0.57% to –0.28%; P < .001; number needed to treat to prevent 1 death, 233) and lower 30-day readmissions (adjusted readmissions, 15.02% vs 15.57%; adjusted risk difference, –0.55%; 95% CI, –0.71% to –0.39%; P < .001; number needed to treat to prevent 1 readmission, 182) than patients cared for by male physicians, after accounting for potential confounders. Our findings were unaffected when restricting analyses to patients treated by hospitalists. Differences persisted across 8 common medical conditions and across patients’ severity of illness.
Conclusions and Relevance
Elderly hospitalized patients treated by female internists have lower mortality and readmissions compared with those cared for by male internists. These findings suggest that the differences in practice patterns between male and female physicians, as suggested in previous studies, may have important clinical implications for patient outcomes.
Reprise de l’activité physique dans les 7 jours après commotion cérébrale chez l’enfant ?
Grool et al., JAMA, 2016
Although concussion treatment guidelines advocate rest in the immediate postinjury period until symptoms resolve, no clear evidence has determined that avoiding physical activity expedites recovery.
To investigate the association between participation in physical activity within 7 days postinjury and incidence of persistent postconcussive symptoms (PPCS).
Design, Setting, and Participants
Prospective, multicenter cohort study (August 2013-June 2015) of 3063 children and adolescents aged 5.00-17.99 years with acute concussion from 9 Pediatric Emergency Research Canada network emergency departments (EDs).
Early physical activity participation within 7 days postinjury.
Main Outcomes and Measures
Physical activity participation and postconcussive symptom severity were rated using standardized questionnaires in the ED and at days 7 and 28 postinjury. PPCS (≥3 new or worsening symptoms on the Post-Concussion Symptom Inventory) was assessed at 28 days postenrollment. Early physical activity and PPCS relationships were examined by unadjusted analysis, 1:1 propensity score matching, and inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW). Sensitivity analyses examined patients (≥3 symptoms) at day 7.
Among 2413 participants who completed the primary outcome and exposure, (mean [SD] age, 11.77 [3.35] years; 1205 [39.3%] females), PPCS at 28 days occurred in 733 (30.4%); 1677 (69.5%) participated in early physical activity including light aerobic exercise (n = 795 [32.9%]), sport-specific exercise (n = 214 [8.9%]), noncontact drills (n = 143 [5.9%]), full-contact practice (n = 106 [4.4%]), or full competition (n = 419 [17.4%]), whereas 736 (30.5%) had no physical activity. On unadjusted analysis, early physical activity participants had lower risk of PPCS than those with no physical activity (24.6% vs 43.5%; Absolute risk difference [ARD], 18.9% [95% CI,14.7%-23.0%]). Early physical activity was associated with lower PPCS risk on propensity score matching (n = 1108 [28.7% for early physical activity vs 40.1% for no physical activity]; ARD, 11.4% [95% CI, 5.8%-16.9%]) and on inverse probability of treatment weighting analysis (n = 2099; relative risk [RR], 0.74 [95% CI, 0.65-0.84]; ARD, 9.7% [95% CI, 5.7%-13.7%]). Among only patients symptomatic at day 7 (n = 803) compared with those who reported no physical activity (n = 584; PPCS, 52.9%), PPCS rates were lower for participants of light aerobic activity (n = 494 [46.4%]; ARD, 6.5% [95% CI, 5.7%-12.5%]), moderate activity (n = 176 [38.6%]; ARD, 14.3% [95% CI, 5.9%-22.2%]), and full-contact activity (n = 133 [36.1%]; ARD, 16.8% [95% CI, 7.5%-25.5%]). No significant group difference was observed on propensity-matched analysis of this subgroup (n = 776 [47.2% vs 51.5%]; ARD, 4.4% [95% CI, −2.6% to 11.3%]).
Conclusions and Relevance
Among participants aged 5 to 18 years with acute concussion, physical activity within 7 days of acute injury compared with no physical activity was associated with reduced risk of PPCS at 28 days. A well-designed randomized clinical trial is needed to determine the benefits of early physical activity following concussion.
Baisse de l’économie = Baisse de la mortalité ?
Redior et al., Lancet, 2016
Studies of the effect of macroeconomic fluctuations on mortality in different socioeconomic groups are scarce and have yielded mixed findings. We analyse mortality trends in Spain before and during the Great Recession in different socioeconomic groups, quantifying the change within each group.
We did a nationwide prospective study, in which we took data from the 2001 Census. All people living in Spain on Nov 1, 2001, were followed up until Dec 31, 2011. We included 35 951 354 people alive in 2001 who were aged between 10 and 74 years in each one of the four calendar years before the economic crisis (from 2004 to 2007) and in each one of the first four calendar years of the crisis (from 2008 to 2011), and analysed all-cause and cause-specific mortality in those people. We classified individuals by socioeconomic status (low, medium, or high) using two indicators of household wealth: household floor space (<72 m2, 72–104 m2, and >104 m2) and number of cars owned by the residents of the household (none, one, and two or more). We used Poisson regression to calculate the annual percentage reduction (APR) in mortality rates during 2004–07 (pre-crisis) and 2008–11 (crisis) in each socioeconomic group, as well as the effect size, measured by the APR difference between the pre-crisis and crisis period.
The annual decline in all-cause mortality in the three socioeconomic groups was 1·7% (95% CI 1·2 to 2·1) for the low group, 1·7% (1·3 to 2·1) for the medium group, and 2·0% (1·4 to 2·5) for the high group in 2004–07, and 3·0% (2·5 to 3·5) for the low group, 2·8% (2·5 to 3·2) for the medium group, and 2·1% (1·6 to 2·7) for the high group in 2008–11 when individuals were classified by household floor space. The annual decline in all-cause mortality when people were classified by number of cars owned by the household was 0·3% (–0·1 to 0·8) for the low group, 1·6% (1·2 to 2·0) for the medium group, and 2·2% (1·6 to 2·8) for the high group in 2004–07, and 2·3% (1·8 to 2·8) for the low group, 2·4% (2·0 to 2·7) for the medium group and 2·5% (1·9 to 3·0) for the high group in 2008–11. The low socioeconomic group showed the largest effect size for both wealth indicators.
In Spain, probably due to the decrease in exposure to risk factors, all-cause mortality decreased more during the economic crisis than before the economic crisis, especially in low socioeconomic groups.
Revue sur les réactions à la transfusion
Delaney et al., Lancet, 2016
Vasopressine versus Noradrénaline pour le « SIRS » après Chirurgie Cardiaque
Hajjar (et non AJAR 😉) et al., Anesthesiology, 2017
Vasoplegic syndrome is a common complication after cardiac surgery and impacts negatively on patient outcomes. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether vasopressin is superior to norepinephrine in reducing postoperative complications in patients with vasoplegic syndrome.
This prospective, randomized, double-blind trial was conducted at the Heart Institute, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil, between January 2012 and March 2014. Patients with vasoplegic shock (defined as mean arterial pressure less than 65 mmHg resistant to fluid challenge and cardiac index greater than 2.2 l · min−2 · m−2) after cardiac surgery were randomized to receive vasopressin (0.01 to 0.06 U/min) or norepinephrine (10 to 60 μg/min) to maintain arterial pressure. The primary endpoint was a composite of mortality or severe complications (stroke, requirement for mechanical ventilation for longer than 48 h, deep sternal wound infection, reoperation, or acute renal failure) within 30 days.
A total of 330 patients were randomized, and 300 were infused with one of the study drugs (vasopressin, 149; norepinephrine, 151). The primary outcome occurred in 32% of the vasopressin patients and in 49% of the norepinephrine patients (unadjusted hazard ratio, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.38 to 0.80; P = 0.0014). Regarding adverse events, the authors found a lower occurrence of atrial fibrillation in the vasopressin group (63.8% vs. 82.1%; P = 0.0004) and no difference between groups in the rates of digital ischemia, mesenteric ischemia, hyponatremia, and myocardial infarction.
The authors’ results suggest that vasopressin can be used as a first-line vasopressor agent in postcardiac surgery vasoplegic shock and improves clinical outcomes.
Bonnes raisons d’arrêter les ARA-II 24h en pré-opératoire ?
Roshanov et al., Anesthesiology, 2017
The effect on cardiovascular outcomes of withholding angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin II receptor blockers in chronic users before noncardiac surgery is unknown.
In this international prospective cohort study, the authors analyzed data from 14,687 patients (including 4,802 angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin II receptor blocker users) at least 45 yr old who had in-patient noncardiac surgery from 2007 to 2011. Using multivariable regression models, the authors studied the relationship between withholding angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin II receptor blockers and a primary composite outcome of all-cause death, stroke, or myocardial injury after noncardiac surgery at 30 days, with intraoperative and postoperative clinically important hypotension as secondary outcomes.
Compared to patients who continued their angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin II receptor blockers, the 1,245 (26%) angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin II receptor blocker users who withheld their angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin II receptor blockers in the 24 h before surgery were less likely to suffer the primary composite outcome of all-cause death, stroke, or myocardial injury (150/1,245 [12.0%] vs. 459/3,557 [12.9%]; adjusted relative risk, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.70 to 0.96; P = 0.01) and intraoperative hypotension (adjusted relative risk, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.72 to 0.93; P < 0.001). The risk of postoperative hypotension was similar between the two groups (adjusted relative risk, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.77 to 1.10; P = 0.36). Results were consistent across the range of preoperative blood pressures. The practice of withholding angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin II receptor blockers was only modestly correlated with patient characteristics and the type and timing of surgery.
Withholding angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin II receptor blockers before major noncardiac surgery was associated with a lower risk of death and postoperative vascular events. A large randomized trial is needed to confirm this finding. In the interim, clinicians should consider recommending that patients withhold angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin II receptor blockers 24 h before surgery.
La fin du « c’est une nécrose tubulaire aigue, ça va récupérer dans 4semaines » ?
Legouis et al., Anesthesiologye, 2016
There is recent evidence to show that patients suffering from acute kidney injury are at increased risk of developing chronic kidney disease despite the fact that surviving tubular epithelial cells have the capacity to fully regenerate renal tubules and restore renal function within days or weeks. The aim of the study was to investigate the impact of acute kidney injury on de novo chronic kidney disease.
The authors conducted a retrospective population-based cohort study of patients initially free from chronic kidney disease who were scheduled for elective cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass and who developed an episode of acute kidney injury from which they recovered. The study was conducted at two French university hospitals between 2005 and 2015. These individuals were matched with patients without acute kidney injury according to a propensity score for developing acute kidney injury.
Among the 4,791 patients meeting the authors’ inclusion criteria, 1,375 (29%) developed acute kidney injury and 685 fully recovered. Propensity score matching was used to balance the distribution of covariates between acute kidney injury and non- acute kidney injury control patients. Matching was possible for 597 cases. During follow-up, 34 (5.7%) had reached a diagnosis of chronic kidney disease as opposed to 17 (2.8%) in the control population (hazard ratio, 2.3; bootstrapping 95% CI, 1.9 to 2.6).
The authors’ data consolidate the recent paradigm shift, reporting acute kidney injury as a strong risk factor for the rapid development of chronic kidney disease.
L’oligurie, bien prédictive d’IRA ?
Hori et al., BJA, 2016
Background. While urine flow rate ≤0.5 ml kg−1 h−1 is believed to define oliguria during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), it is unclear whether this definition identifies risk for acute kidney injury (AKI) . The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate if urine flow rate during CPB is associated with AKI.
Methods. Urine flow rate was calculated in 503 patients during CPB. AKI in the first 48 h after surgery was defined by the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes classification. Adjusted risk factors associated with AKI and urine flow rate were assessed.
Results. Patients with AKI [n=149 (29.5%)] had lower urine flow rate than those without AKI (P<0.001). The relationship between urine flow and AKI risk was non-linear, with an inflection point at 1.5 ml kg−1 h−1. Among patients with urine flow <1.5 ml kg−1 h−1, every 0.5 ml kg−1 h−1 higher urine flow reduced the adjusted risk of AKI by 26% (95% CI 13–37; P<0.001). Urine flow rate during CPB was independently associated with the risk for AKI. Age up to 80 years and preoperative diuretic use were inversely associated with urine flow rate; mean arterial pressure on CPB (when <87 mmHg) and CPB flow were positively associated with urine flow rate.
Conclusions. Urine flow rate during CPB <1.5 ml kg−1 h−1 identifies patients at risk for cardiac surgery–associated AKI. Careful monitoring of urine flow rate and optimizing mean arterial pressure and CPB flow might be a means to ensure renal perfusion during CPB.
Le Chewing-gum en prévention des NVPO ?
(Serait-ce ce genre d’études qui font que l’Impact Factor du BJA a dépassé celui d’Anesthesiology ?)
Darvall et al., BJA, 2016
Revue sur les PK-PD en Anesthésie
Van der Berg et al., BJA, 2016
Monitorage de la dysfonction diaphragmatique et sarcopénie pour le sevrage ventilatoire
Dres et al., AJRCCM, 2016
Intensive care unit (ICU)- and mechanical ventilation (MV)-acquired limb muscle and diaphragm dysfunction may both be associated with longer length of stay and worse outcome. Whether they are two aspects of the same entity or have a different prevalence and prognostic impact remains unclear.
To quantify the prevalence and coexistence of these two forms of ICU-acquired weakness and their impact on outcome.
In patients undergoing a first spontaneous breathing trial after at least 24 hours of MV, diaphragm dysfunction was evaluated using twitch tracheal pressure in response to bilateral anterior magnetic phrenic nerve stimulation (a pressure <11 cm H2O defined dysfunction) and ultrasonography (thickening fraction [TFdi] and excursion). Limb muscle weakness was defined as a Medical Research Council (MRC) score less than 48.
Measurements and Main Results
Seventy-six patients were assessed at their first spontaneous breathing trial: 63% had diaphragm dysfunction, 34% had limb muscle weakness, and 21% had both. There was a significant but weak correlation between MRC score and twitch pressure (ρ = 0.26; P = 0.03) and TFdi (ρ = 0.28; P = 0.01), respectively. Low twitch pressure (odds ratio, 0.60; 95% confidence interval, 0.45–0.79; P < 0.001) and TFdi (odds ratio, 0.84; 95% confidence interval, 0.76–0.92; P < 0.001) were independently associated with weaning failure, but the MRC score was not. Diaphragm dysfunction was associated with higher ICU and hospital mortality, and limb muscle weakness was associated with longer duration of MV and hospital stay.
Diaphragm dysfunction is twice as frequent as limb muscle weakness and has a direct negative impact on weaning outcome. The two types of muscle weakness have only limited overlap.
VNI pour le SDRA ?
Bellani, et al., AJRCCM, 2016
Noninvasive ventilation (NIV) is increasingly used in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The evidence supporting NIV use in patients with ARDS remains relatively sparse.
To determine whether, during NIV, the categorization of ARDS severity based on the PaO2/FiO2 Berlin criteria is useful.
The LUNG SAFE (Large Observational Study to Understand the Global Impact of Severe Acute Respiratory Failure) study described the management of patients with ARDS. This substudy examines the current practice of NIV use in ARDS, the utility of the PaO2/FiO2 ratio in classifying patients receiving NIV, and the impact of NIV on outcome.
Measurements and Main Results
Of 2,813 patients with ARDS, 436 (15.5%) were managed with NIV on Days 1 and 2 following fulfillment of diagnostic criteria. Classification of ARDS severity based on PaO2/FiO2 ratio was associated with an increase in intensity of ventilatory support, NIV failure, and intensive care unit (ICU) mortality. NIV failure occurred in 22.2% of mild, 42.3% of moderate, and 47.1% of patients with severe ARDS. Hospital mortality in patients with NIV success and failure was 16.1% and 45.4%, respectively. NIV use was independently associated with increased ICU (hazard ratio, 1.446 [95% confidence interval, 1.159–1.805]), but not hospital, mortality. In a propensity matched analysis, ICU mortality was higher in NIV than invasively ventilated patients with a PaO2/FiO2 lower than 150 mm Hg.
NIV was used in 15% of patients with ARDS, irrespective of severity category. NIV seems to be associated with higher ICU mortality in patients with a PaO2/FiO2 lower than 150 mm Hg.
Co-infection de grippe : facteur de gravité ?
Martin-Loeches et al., ICM, 2016
Co-infection is frequently seen in critically ill patients with influenza, although the exact rate is unknown. We determined the rate of co-infection, the risk factors and the outcomes associated with co-infection in critically ill patients with influenza over a 7-year period in 148 Spanish intensive care units (ICUs).
This was a prospective, observational, multicentre study. Influenza was diagnosed using the polymerase chain reaction. Co-infection had to be confirmed using standard bacteriological tests. The primary endpoint of this analysis was the presence of community-acquired co-infection, with secondary endpoints including ICU, 28-day and hospital mortality.
Of 2901 ICU patients diagnosed with influenza, 482 (16.6 %) had a co-infection. The proportion of cases of co-infection increased from 11.4 % (110/968) in 2009 to 23.4 % (80/342) in 2015 (P < 0.001). Compared with patients without co-infection, patients with co-infection were older [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.1, 95 % confidence interval 1.1–1.2; P < 0.001] and were more frequently immunosuppressed due to existing HIV infection (aOR 2.6 [1.5–4.5]; P < 0.001) or preceding medication (aOR 1.4 [1.1–1.9]; P = 0.03). Co-infection was an independent risk factor for ICU mortality (aOR 1.4 [1.1–1.8]; P < 0.02), 28-day mortality (aOR 1.3 [1.1–1.7]; P = 0.04) and hospital mortality (aOR 1.9 [1.5–2.5]; P < 0.001).
Co-infection in critically ill patients with influenza has increased in recent years. In this Spanish cohort, age and immunosuppression were risk factors for co-infection, and co-infection was an independent risk factor for ICU, 28-day and hospital mortality.
Méta-analyse sur la dysfonction diaphragmatique diagnostiquée par échographie
Zambon et al., ICM, 2016
Revue de l’immunodépression induite par les infections bactériennes et virales
Koch et al., Shock, 2017
Perturbations du microbiote des patients en Réanimation
Yeh et al., Shock, 2016
Valeur pronostique de l’insuffisance surrénalienne relative dans le choc cardiogénique
Bagate et al., Shock, 2017
Background: Relative adrenal insufficiency (RAI) is common in intensive care unit patients, particularly during septic shock (SS). Cardiogenic shock (CS) may share some pathophysiological features with SS. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and long-term prognosis of RAI during CS.
Patients and Methods: Prospective observational study conducted in the intensive care and cardiology units in one university hospital in France. Patients meeting the criteria for CS without prior corticosteroid therapy were included. Total blood cortisol levels were assessed immediately before (T0) a short corticotropin stimulation test (0.25 mg i.v. of tetracosactrin) and 30 and 60 min afterward. Δmax was defined as the difference between the maximal value after the test and T0.
Results: Of the 92 patients enrolled, 42 (46%) (95% confidence interval [CI] [36%–56%]) died in hospital and 7 more died during a median follow-up of 616 [57–2,498] days, for an overall mortality rate of 53% (95% CI [43%–63%]). Three groups were identified based on the corticotropin test: group 1 (T0 ≤798 nmol/L and Δmax >473 nmol/L), group 2 ([T0 >798 nmol/L and Δmax >473 nmol/L] or [T0 ≤798 nmol/L and Δmax ≤473 nmol/L]), and group 3 (T0 >798 nmol/L and Δmax ≤473 nmol/L) with an overall survival of 76%, 43%, and 15%, respectively (log rank P = 0.003). In the multivariable analysis, adrenal nonresponse (group 3) was an independent predictor of mortality (P = 0.04), along with left ventricular ejection fraction, Simplified Acute Physiology Score II, and cardiac arrest.
Conclusions: These data suggest that a short corticotropin test has a good prognostic value in CS and allows identifying patients at higher risk of death.
L’IRA dans le sepsis sévère chez l’enfant de mauvais pronostic
Recommandations sur l’antagonisation des antithrombotiques dans l’hémorragie intra-cérébrale
Neurocritical Care Society and the Society of Critical Care Medicine, CCM, 2016
Facteurs de retard d’antibiothérapie dans le choc septique
Amaral et al., CCM, 2016
To identify clinical and organizational factors associated with delays in antimicrobial therapy for septic shock.
In a retrospective cohort of critically ill patients with septic shock.
A total of 6,720 patients with septic shock.
Measurements and Main Results
Higher Acute Physiology Score (+24 min per 5 Acute Physiology Score points; p < 0.0001); older age (+16 min per 10 yr; p < 0.0001); presence of comorbidities (+35 min; p < 0.0001); hospital length of stay before hypotension: less than 3 days (+50 min; p < 0.0001), between 3 and 7 days (+121 min; p < 0.0001), and longer than 7 days (+130 min; p < 0.0001); and a diagnosis of pneumonia (+45 min; p < 0.01) were associated with longer times to antimicrobial therapy. Two variables were associated with shorter times to antimicrobial therapy: community-acquired infections (–53 min; p < 0.001) and higher temperature (–15 min per 1°C; p < 0.0001). After adjusting for confounders, admissions to academic hospitals (+52 min; p< 0.05), and transfers from medical wards (medical vs surgical ward admission; +39 min; p < 0.05) had longer times to antimicrobial therapy. Admissions from the emergency department (emergency department vs surgical ward admission, –47 min; p< 0.001) had shorter times to antimicrobial therapy.
We identified clinical and organizational factors that can serve as evidence-based targets for future quality-improvement initiatives on antimicrobial timing. The observation that academic hospitals are more likely to delay antimicrobials should be further explored in future trials.
Le Ringer Lactate : en veux-tu, en voilà ?
Zampieri, et al., CCM, 2016
To assess the impact of the percentage of fluid infused as Lactated Ringer (%LR) during the first 2 days of ICU admission in hospital mortality and occurrence of acute kidney injury.
Analysis of a large public database (Multiparameter Intelligent Monitoring in Intensive Care-II).
Adult patients with at least 2 days of ICU stay, admission creatinine lower than 5 mg/dL, and that received at least 500 mL of fluid in the first 48 hours.
Measurement and Main Results
10,249 patients were included in mortality analysis and 8,085 were included in the acute kidney injury analysis. For acute kidney injury analysis, we excluded patients achieving acute kidney injury criteria in the first 2 days of ICU stay. Acute kidney injury was defined as stage 2/3 Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes creatinine criteria and was assessed from days 3–7. The effects of %LR in both outcomes were assessed through logistic regression controlling for confounders. Principal component analysis was applied to assess the effect of volume of each fluid type on mortality. Higher %LR was associated with lower mortality and less acute kidney injury. %LR effect increased with total volume of fluid infused. For patients in the fourth quartile of fluid volume (> 7 L), the odds ratio for mortality for %LR equal to 75% versus %LR equal to 25% was 0.50 (95% CI, 0.32–0.79; p < 0.001). Principal component analysis suggested that volume of Lactated Ringer and 0.9% saline infused had opposite effects in outcome, favoring Lactated Ringer.
Higher %LR was associated with reduced hospital mortality and with less acute kidney injury from days 3–7 after ICU admission. The association between %LR and mortality was influenced by the total volume of fluids infused.