Biblio du mois : Mars 2017
Voici les beaux jours et surtout la biblio du mois !
Entre 2 verres en terrasse et les récentes données scientifiques de cette nouvelle biblio, prenez le temps de vous informer sur la Réforme du 3ème cycle et de ses potentielles conséquences sur notre avenir !
Une biblio qui retrouve encore l’importance de garder l’Anesthésie-Réanimation dans une même entité avec des effets potentiellement bénéfiques des halogénés en Réanimation.
Au programme, de la physiologie, de l’interaction coeur-poumons avec le « tidal volume challenge », de la réhabilitation, des études négatives notamment sur la néphropathie aux produits de contraste ou la lettre de condoléance, avec de nombreuses revues intéressantes notamment sur le monitorage non-invasif du débit cardiaque, la lidocaïne IV péri-opératoire et puis les régressions logistiques ;-). On notera aussi une étude sur la fièvre pour vous la raconter en stage après Sepsiscool.
Et pour ne plus se faire emmerder, soyez à jour sur les articles les plus récents sur le Clostridium difficile (jeu de mots pas difficile) !
Réhabilitation hospitalier versus à domicile après PTG
Buhagiar, et al., JAMA, 2017
Importance Formal rehabilitation programs, including inpatient programs, are often assumed to optimize recovery among patients after undergoing total knee arthroplasty. However, these programs have not been compared with any outpatient or home-based programs.
Objective To determine whether 10 days of inpatient rehabilitation followed by a monitored home-based program after total knee arthroplasty provided greater improvements than a monitored home-based program alone in mobility, function, and quality of life.
Design, Setting, and Participants In this 2-group, parallel, randomized clinical trial, including a nonrandomized observational group, conducted at 2 public, high-volume arthroplasty hospitals in Sydney, Australia (July 2012-December 2015), 940 patients with osteoarthritis undergoing primary total knee arthroplasty were screened for eligibility. Of the 525 eligible patients consecutively invited to participate, 165 were randomized either to receive inpatient hospital rehabilitation and home-based rehabilitation or to receive home-based rehabilitation alone, and 87 patients enrolled in the observation group.
Interventions Eighty-one patients were randomized to receive 10 days of hospital inpatient rehabilitation followed by an 8-week clinician-monitored home-based program, 84 were randomized to receive the home-based program alone, and 87 agreed to be in the observational group, which included only the home-based program.
Main Outcomes and Measures Mobility at 26 weeks after surgery, measured with the 6-minute walk test. Secondary outcomes included the Oxford Knee Score, which ranges from 0 (worst) to 48 (best) and has a minimal clinically important difference of 5 points; and EuroQol Group 5-Dimension Self-Report Questionnaire (EQ-5D) visual analog scale, which ranges from 0 (worst) to 100 (best), and has a minimal clinically important difference of 23 points.
Results Among the 165 randomized participants, 68% were women, and the cohort had a mean age, 66.9 years (SD, 8.4 years). There was no significant difference in the 6-minute walk test between the inpatient rehabilitation and either of the 2 home program groups (mean difference, −1.01; 95% CI, −25.56 to 23.55), nor in patient-reported pain and function (knee score mean difference, 2.06; 95% CI, −0.59 to 4.71), or quality of life (EQ-5D visual analog scale mean difference, 1.41; 95% CI, −6.42 to 3.60). The number of postdischarge complications for the inpatient group was 12 vs 9 among the home group, and there were no adverse events reported that were a result of trial participation.
Conclusions and Relevance Among adults undergoing uncomplicated total knee arthroplasty, the use of inpatient rehabilitation compared with a monitored home-based program did not improve mobility at 26 weeks after surgery. These findings do not support inpatient rehabilitation for this group of patients.
Performance des régressions logistiques
Meurer et al, JAMA, 2017
Vancomycine versus Metronidazole dans les infections à Clostridium difficile
Stevens, et al., JAMA Intern Med, 2017
Importance Metronidazole hydrochloride has historically been considered first-line therapy for patients with mild to moderate Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) but is inferior to vancomycin hydrochloride for clinical cure. The choice of therapy may likewise have substantial consequences on other downstream outcomes, such as recurrence and mortality, although these secondary outcomes have been less studied.
Objective To evaluate the risk of recurrence and all-cause 30-day mortality among patients receiving metronidazole or vancomycin for the treatment of mild to moderate and severe CDI.
Design, Setting, and Participants This retrospective, propensity-matched cohort study evaluated patients treated for CDI, defined as a positive laboratory test result for the presence of C difficile toxins or toxin genes in a stool sample, in the US Department of Veterans Affairs health care system from January 1, 2005, through December 31, 2012. Data analysis was performed from February 7, 2015, through November 22, 2016.
Exposures Treatment with vancomycin or metronidazole.
Main Outcomes and Measures The outcomes of interest in this study were CDI recurrence and all-cause 30-day mortality. Recurrence was defined as a second positive laboratory test result within 8 weeks of the initial CDI diagnosis. All-cause 30-day mortality was defined as death from any cause within 30 days of the initial CDI diagnosis.
Results A total of 47 471 patients (mean [SD] age, 68.8 [13.3] years; 1947 women [4.1%] and 45 524 men [95.9%]) developed CDI, were treated with vancomycin or metronidazole, and met criteria for entry into the study. Of 47 147 eligible first treatment episodes, 2068 (4.4%) were with vancomycin. Those 2068 patients were matched to 8069 patients in the metronidazole group for a total of 10 137 included patients. Subcohorts were constructed that comprised 5452 patients with mild to moderate disease and 3130 patients with severe disease. There were no differences in the risk of recurrence between patients treated with vancomycin vs those treated with metronidazole in any of the disease severity cohorts. Among patients in the any severity cohort, those who were treated with vancomycin were less likely to die (adjusted relative risk, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.74 to 0.98; adjusted risk difference, –0.02; 95% CI, –0.03 to –0.01). No significant difference was found in the risk of mortality between treatment groups among patients with mild to moderate CDI, but vancomycin significantly reduced the risk of all-cause 30-day mortality among patients with severe CDI (adjusted relative risk, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.65 to 0.97; adjusted risk difference, –0.04; 95% CI, –0.07 to –0.01).
Conclusions and Relevance Recurrence rates were similar among patients treated with vancomycin and metronidazole. However, the risk of 30-day mortality was significantly reduced among patients who received vancomycin. Our findings may further justify the use of vancomycin as initial therapy for severe CDI.
Méta-analyse : Les anti-acides associés à plus d’infections à Clostridium difficile
Wise et al, JAMA Intern Med, 2017
Inefficacité d’une hydratation prophylactique pour prévenir la néphropathie liée aux produits de contraste ?
Nijssen et al, Lancet, 2017
Intravenous saline is recommended in clinical practice guidelines as the cornerstone for preventing contrast-induced nephropathy in patients with compromised renal function. However, clinical-effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of this prophylactic hydration treatment in protecting renal function has not been adequately studied in the population targeted by the guidelines, against a group receiving no prophylaxis. This was the aim of the AMACING trial.
AMACING is a prospective, randomised, phase 3, parallel-group, open-label, non-inferiority trial of patients at risk of contrast-induced nephropathy according to current guidelines. High-risk patients (with an estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] of 30–59 mL per min/1·73 m2) aged 18 years and older, undergoing an elective procedure requiring iodinated contrast material administration at Maastricht University Medical Centre, the Netherlands, were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive intravenous 0·9% NaCl or no prophylaxis. We excluded patients with eGFR lower than 30 mL per min/1·73 m2, previous dialysis, or no referral for intravenous hydration. Randomisation was stratified by predefined risk factors. The primary outcome was incidence of contrast-induced nephropathy, defined as an increase in serum creatinine from baseline of more than 25% or 44 μmol/L within 2–6 days of contrast exposure, and cost-effectiveness of no prophylaxis compared with intravenous hydration in the prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy. We measured serum creatinine immediately before, 2–6 days, and 26–35 days after contrast-material exposure. Laboratory personnel were masked to treatment allocation. Adverse events and use of resources were systematically recorded. The non-inferiority margin was set at 2·1%. Both intention-to-treat and per-protocol analyses were done. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02106234.
Between June 17, 2014, and July 17, 2016, 660 consecutive patients were randomly assigned to receive no prophylaxis (n=332) or intravenous hydration (n=328). 2–6 day serum creatinine was available for 307 (92%) of 332 patients in the no prophylaxis group and 296 (90%) of 328 patients in the intravenous hydration group. Contrast-induced nephropathy was recorded in eight (2·6%) of 307 non-hydrated patients and in eight (2·7%) of 296 hydrated patients. The absolute difference (no hydration vs hydration) was −0·10% (one-sided 95% CI −2·25 to 2·06; one-tailed p=0·4710). No hydration was cost-saving relative to hydration. No haemodialysis or related deaths occurred within 35 days. 18 (5·5%) of 328 patients had complications associated with intravenous hydration.
We found no prophylaxis to be non-inferior and cost-saving in preventing contrast-induced nephropathy compared with intravenous hydration according to current clinical practice guidelines.
Optiflow versus O2 standard dans la bronchiolite modérée
Kepreotes et al, Lancet, 2017
Bronchiolitis is the most common lung infection in infants and treatment focuses on management of respiratory distress and hypoxia. High-flow warm humidified oxygen (HFWHO) is increasingly used, but has not been rigorously studied in randomised trials. We aimed to examine whether HFWHO provided enhanced respiratory support, thereby shortening time to weaning off oxygen.
In this open, phase 4, randomised controlled trial, we recruited children aged less than 24 months with moderate bronchiolitis attending the emergency department of the John Hunter Hospital or the medical unit of the John Hunter Children’s Hospital in New South Wales, Australia. Patients were randomly allocated (1:1) via opaque sealed envelopes to HFWHO (maximum flow of 1 L/kg per min to a limit of 20 L/min using 1:1 air–oxygen ratio, resulting in a maximum FiO2 of 0·6) or standard therapy (cold wall oxygen 100% via infant nasal cannulae at low flow to a maximum of 2 L/min) using a block size of four and stratifying for gestational age at birth. The primary outcome was time from randomisation to last use of oxygen therapy. All randomised children were included in the primary and secondary safety analyses. This trial is registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry, number ACTRN12612000685819.
From July 16, 2012, to May 1, 2015, we randomly assigned 202 children to either HFWHO (101 children) or standard therapy (101 children). Median time to weaning was 24 h (95% CI 18–28) for standard therapy and 20 h (95% CI 17–34) for HFWHO (hazard ratio [HR] for difference in survival distributions 0·9 [95% CI 0·7–1·2]; log rank p=0·61). Fewer children experienced treatment failure on HFWHO (14 [14%]) compared with standard therapy (33 [33%]; p=0·0016); of these children, those on HFWHO were supported for longer than were those on standard therapy before treatment failure (HR 0·3; 95% CI 0·2–0·6; p<0·0001). 20 (61%) of 33 children who experienced treatment failure on standard therapy were rescued with HFWHO. 12 (12%) of children on standard therapy required transfer to the intensive care unit compared with 14 (14%) of those on HFWHO (difference −1%; 95% CI −7 to 16; p=0·41). Four adverse events occurred (oxygen desaturation and condensation inhalation in the HFWHO group, and two incidences of oxygen tubing disconnection in the standard therapy group); none resulted in withdrawal from the trial. No oxygen-related serious adverse events occurred. Secondary effectiveness outcomes are reported in the Results section.
HFWHO did not significantly reduce time on oxygen compared with standard therapy, suggesting that early use of HFWHO does not modify the underlying disease process in moderately severe bronchiolitis. HFWHO might have a role as a rescue therapy to reduce the proportion of children requiring high-cost intensive care.
Score de risque d’hémorragie sous biantiagrégation plaquettaire après coronarographie
Costa et al, Lancet, 2017
Echec de la prégabaline pour les sciatiques aigues ou chroniques ?
Mathieson et al, NEJM, 2017
Sciatica can be disabling, and evidence regarding medical treatments is limited. Pregabalin is effective in the treatment of some types of neuropathic pain. This study examined whether pregabalin may reduce the intensity of sciatica.
We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of pregabalin in patients with sciatica. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either pregabalin at a dose of 150 mg per day that was adjusted to a maximum dose of 600 mg per day or matching placebo for up to 8 weeks. The primary outcome was the leg-pain intensity score on a 10-point scale (with 0 indicating no pain and 10 the worst possible pain) at week 8; the leg-pain intensity score was also evaluated at week 52, a secondary time point for the primary outcome. Secondary outcomes included the extent of disability, back-pain intensity, and quality-of-life measures at prespecified time points over the course of 1 year.
A total of 209 patients underwent randomization, of whom 108 received pregabalin and 101 received placebo; after randomization, 2 patients in the pregabalin group were determined to be ineligible and were excluded from the analyses. At week 8, the mean unadjusted leg-pain intensity score was 3.7 in the pregabalin group and 3.1 in the placebo group (adjusted mean difference, 0.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], −0.2 to 1.2; P=0.19). At week 52, the mean unadjusted leg-pain intensity score was 3.4 in the pregabalin group and 3.0 in the placebo group (adjusted mean difference, 0.3; 95% CI, −0.5 to 1.0; P=0.46). No significant between-group differences were observed with respect to any secondary outcome at either week 8 or week 52. A total of 227 adverse events were reported in the pregabalin group and 124 in the placebo group. Dizziness was more common in the pregabalin group than in the placebo group.
Treatment with pregabalin did not significantly reduce the intensity of leg pain associated with sciatica and did not significantly improve other outcomes, as compared with placebo, over the course of 8 weeks. The incidence of adverse events was significantly higher in the pregabalin group than in the placebo group.
Revue sur les méthodes non-invasives de monitorage du débit cardiaque en péri-opératoire
Joosten et al., BJA, 2017
Revue sur les blasts pulmonaires
Scott et al., BJA, 2017
Revue sur l’utilisation de Lidocaïne IV en péri-opératoire
Dunn et al., Anesthesiology, 2017
Le « Tidal volume challenge » comme prédicteur de réponse au remplissage
Myatra et al., CCM, 2017
Stroke volume variation and pulse pressure variation do not reliably predict fluid responsiveness during low tidal volume ventilation. We hypothesized that with transient increase in tidal volume from 6 to 8 mL/kg predicted body weight, that is, “tidal volume challenge,” the changes in pulse pressure variation and stroke volume variation will predict fluid responsiveness.
Prospective, single-arm study.
Medical-surgical ICU in a university hospital.
Adult patients with acute circulatory failure, having continuous cardiac output monitoring, and receiving controlled low tidal volume ventilation.
The pulse pressure variation, stroke volume variation, and cardiac index were recorded at tidal volume 6 mL/kg predicted body weight and 1 minute after the “tidal volume challenge.” The tidal volume was reduced back to 6 mL/kg predicted body weight, and a fluid bolus was given to identify fluid responders (increase in cardiac index > 15%). The end-expiratory occlusion test was performed at tidal volumes 6 and 8 mL/kg predicted body weight and after reducing tidal volume back to 6 mL/kg predicted body weight.
Thirty measurements were obtained in 20 patients. The absolute change in pulse pressure variation and stroke volume variation after increasing tidal volume from 6 to 8 mL/kg predicted body weight predicted fluid responsiveness with areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (with 95% CIs) being 0.99 (0.98–1.00) and 0.97 (0.92–1.00), respectively. The best cutoff values of the absolute change in pulse pressure variation and stroke volume variation after increasing tidal volume from 6 to 8 mL/kg predicted body weight were 3.5% and 2.5%, respectively. The pulse pressure variation, stroke volume variation, central venous pressure, and end-expiratory occlusion test obtained during tidal volume 6 mL/kg predicted body weight did not predict fluid responsiveness.
The changes in pulse pressure variation or stroke volume variation obtained by transiently increasing tidal volume (tidal volume challenge) are superior to pulse pressure variation and stroke volume variation in predicting fluid responsiveness during low tidal volume ventilation.
Fièvre aux urgences = meilleure survie en réanimation des patients en sepsis ?
Sundén-Cullberg, et al., CCM, 2017
To study the prognostic value of fever in the emergency department in septic patients subsequently admitted to the ICU.
Observational cohort study from the Swedish national quality register for sepsis.
Thirty ICU’s in Sweden.
Two thousand two hundred twenty-five adults who were admitted to an ICU within 24 hours of hospital arrival with a diagnosis of severe sepsis or septic shock were included.
Measurements and Main Results
Body temperature was measured and classified according to four categories (< 37°C, 37–38.29°C, 38.3–39.5°C, ≥ 39.5°C). The main outcome was in-hospital mortality. Odds ratios for mortality according to body temperature were estimated using multivariable logistic regression. Subgroup analyses were conducted according to age, sex, underlying comorbidity, and time to given antibiotics. Overall mortality was 25%. More than half of patients had a body temperature below 38.3°C. Mortality was inversely correlated with temperature and decreased, on average, more than 5% points per °C increase, from 50% in those with the lowest temperatures to 9% in those with the highest. Increased body temperature in survivors was also associated with shorter hospital stays. Patients with fever received better quality of care, but the inverse association between body temperature and mortality was robust and remained consistent after adjustment for quality of care measures and other factors that could have confounded the association. Among vital signs, body temperature was best at predicting mortality.
Contrary to common perceptions and current guidelines for care of critically ill septic patients, increased body temperature in the emergency department was strongly associated with lower mortality and shorter hospital stays in patients with severe sepsis or septic shock subsequently admitted to the ICU.
Pas de différence significative entre Bicarbonates et NaCl 0.9% dans la prévention d’une néphropathie aux produits de contraste
Valette et al., CCM, 2017
To test whether hydration with bicarbonate rather than isotonic sodium chloride reduces the risk of contrast-associated acute kidney injury in critically ill patients.
Prospective, double-blind, multicenter, randomized controlled study.
Three French ICUs.
Critically ill patients with stable renal function (n = 307) who received intravascular contrast media.
Hydration with 0.9% sodium chloride or 1.4% sodium bicarbonate administered with the same infusion protocol: 3 mL/kg during 1 hour before and 1 mL/kg/hr during 6 hours after contrast medium exposure.
Measurements and Main Results
The primary endpoint was the development of contrast-associated acute kidney injury, as defined by the Acute Kidney Injury Network criteria, 72 hours after contrast exposure. Patients randomized to the bicarbonate group (n = 151) showed a higher urinary pH at the end of the infusion than patients randomized to the saline group (n = 156) (6.7 ± 2.1 vs 6.2 ± 1.8, respectively; p < 0.0001). The frequency of contrast-associated acute kidney injury was similar in both groups: 52 patients (33.3%) in the saline group and 53 patients (35.1%) in the bicarbonate group (absolute risk difference, –1.8%; 95% CI [–12.3% to 8.9%]; p = 0.81). The need for renal replacement therapy (five [3.2%] and six [3.9%] patients; p = 0.77), ICU length of stay (24.7 ± 22.9 and 23 ± 23.8 d; p = 0.52), and mortality (25 [16.0%] and 24 [15.9%] patients; p > 0.99) were also similar between the saline and bicarbonate groups, respectively.
Except for urinary pH, none of the outcomes differed between the two groups. Among ICU patients with stable renal function, the benefit of using sodium bicarbonate rather than isotonic sodium chloride for preventing contrast-associated acute kidney injury is marginal, if any.
Association d’une meilleure survie avec l’utilisation d’inhibiteurs calciques ?
Wiewel et al., CCM, 2017
Experimental studies suggest that calcium channel blockers can improve sepsis outcome. The aim of this study was to determine the association between prior use of calcium channel blockers and the outcome of patients admitted to the ICU with sepsis.
A prospective observational study.
The ICUs of two tertiary care hospitals in the Netherlands.
In total, 1,060 consecutive patients admitted with sepsis were analyzed, 18.6% of whom used calcium channel blockers.
Measurements and Main Results
Considering large baseline differences between calcium channel blocker users and nonusers, a propensity score matched cohort was constructed to account for differential likelihoods of receiving calcium channel blockers. Fifteen plasma biomarkers providing insight in key host responses implicated in sepsis pathogenesis were measured during the first 4 days after admission. Severity of illness over the first 24 hours, sites of infection and causative pathogens were similar in both groups. Prior use of calcium channel blockers was associated with improved 30-day survival in the propensity-matched cohort (20.2% vs 32.9% in non-calcium channel blockers users; p = 0.009) and in multivariate analysis (odds ratio, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.31–0.74; p = 0.0007). Prior calcium channel blocker use was not associated with changes in the plasma levels of host biomarkers indicative of activation of the cytokine network, the vascular endothelium and the coagulation system, with the exception of antithrombin levels, which were less decreased in calcium channel blocker users.
Prior calcium channel blocker use is associated with reduced mortality in patients following ICU admission with sepsis.
Contrôle thermique après ACR per-opératoire : étude multicentrique rétrospective
Constant et al, ICM, 2017
Few outcome data are available about temperature management after intraoperative cardiac arrest (IOCA). We describe targeted temperature management (TTM) (32–34 °C) modalities, adverse events, and association with 1-year functional outcome in patients with IOCA.
Patients admitted to 11 ICUs after IOCA in 2008–2013 were studied retrospectively. The main outcome measure was 1-year functional outcome.
Of the 101 patients [35 women and 66 men; median age, 62 years (interquartile range, 42–72)], 68 (67.3%) were ASA PS I to III and 57 (56.4%) had emergent surgery. First recorded rhythms were asystole in 44 (43.6%) patients, pulseless electrical activity in 36 (35.6%), and ventricular fibrillation/tachycardia in 20 (19.8%). Median times from collapse to cardiopulmonary resuscitation and return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) were 0 min (0–0) and 10 min (4–20), respectively. The 30 (29.7%) patients who received TTM had an increased risk of infection (P = 0.005) but not of arrhythmia, bleeding, or metabolic/electrolyte disorders. By multivariate analysis, one or more defibrillation before ROSC was positively associated with a favorable functional outcome at 1-year (OR 3.06, 95% CI 1.05–8.95, P = 0.04) and emergency surgery was negatively associated with 1-year favorable functional outcome (OR 0.36; 95% CI 0.14–0.95, P = 0.038). TTM use was not independently associated with 1-year favorable outcome (OR 0.82; 95% CI 0.27–2.46, P = 0.72).
TTM was used in less than one-third of patients after IOCA. TTM was associated with infection but not with bleeding or coronary events in this setting. TTM did not independently predict 1-year favorable functional outcome after IOCA in this study.
Echec de la lettre de condoléance après décès d’un patient
Kentish-Barnes et al, ICM, 2017
Family members of patients who die in the intensive care unit (ICU) may experience symptoms of stress, anxiety, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and/or prolonged grief. We evaluated whether grief symptoms were alleviated if the physician and the nurse in charge at the time of death sent the closest relative a handwritten condolence letter.
Multicenter randomized trial conducted among 242 relatives of patients who died at 22 ICUs in France between December 2014 and October 2015. Relatives were randomly assigned to receiving (n = 123) or not receiving (n = 119) a condolence letter. The primary endpoint was the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Score (HADS) at 1 month. Secondary endpoints included HADS, complicated grief (ICG), and PTSD-related symptoms (IES-R) at 6 months. Observers were blinded to group allocation.
At 1 month, 208 (85.9%) relatives completed the HADS; median score was 16 [IQR, 10–22] with and 14 [8–21.5] without the letter (P = 0.36). Although scores were higher in the intervention group, there were no significant differences regarding the HADS-depression subscale (8 [4–12] vs. 6 [2–12], mean difference 1.1 [−0.5 to 2.6]; P = 0.09) and prevalence of depression symptoms (56.0 vs. 42.4%, RR 0.76 [0.57–1.00]; P = 0.05). At 6 months, 190 (78.5%) relatives were interviewed. The intervention significantly increased the HADS (13 [7–19] vs. 10 [4–17.5], P = 0.04), HADS-depression subscale (6 [2–10] vs. 3 [1–9], P = 0.02), prevalence of depression symptoms (36.6 vs. 24.7%, P = 0.05) and PTSD-related symptoms (52.4 vs. 37.1%, P = 0.03).
In relatives of patients who died in the ICU, a condolence letter failed to alleviate grief symptoms and may have worsened depression and PTSD-related symptoms.
Effet des curares sur la pression transpulmonaire chez les patients en SDRA
Guervilly et al., ICM, 2017
To investigate whether neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBA) exert beneficial effects in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) by reason of their action on respiratory mechanics, particularly transpulmonary pressures (PL).
A prospective randomised controlled study in patients with moderate to severe ARDS within 48 h of the onset of ARDS. All patients were monitored by means of an oesophageal catheter and followed up for 48 h. Moderate ARDS patients were randomised into two groups according to whether they were given a 48-h continuous infusion of cisatracurium besylate or not (control group). Severe ARDS patients did not undergo randomisation and all received cisatracurium besylate per protocol. The changes during the 48-h study period in oxygenation and in respiratory mechanics, including inspiratory and expiratory PL and driving pressure, were assessed and compared. Delta PL (∆PL) was defined as inspiratory PL minus expiratory PL.
Thirty patients were included, 24 with moderate ARDS and 6 with severe ARDS. NMBA infusion was associated with an improvement in oxygenation in both moderate and severe ARDS, accompanied by a decrease in both plateau pressure and total positive end-expiratory pressure. The mean inspiratory and expiratory PL were higher in the moderate ARDS group receiving NMBA than in the control group. In contrast, there was no change in either driving pressure or ∆PL related to NMBA administration.
NMBA could exert beneficial effects in patients with moderate ARDS, at least in part, by limiting expiratory efforts.
1/5e des traumatisés crânien en réanimation font un événement thromboemboliques ?
Skrifvars et al., ICM, 2017
To estimate the prevalence, risk factors, prophylactic treatment and impact on mortality for venous thromboembolism (VTE) in patients with moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) treated in the intensive care unit.
A post hoc analysis of the erythropoietin in traumatic brain injury (EPO-TBI) trial that included twice-weekly lower limb ultrasound screening. Venous thrombotic events were defined as ultrasound-proven proximal deep venous thrombosis (DVT) or clinically detected pulmonary embolism (PE). Results are reported as events, percentages or medians and interquartile range (IQR). Cox regression analysis was used to calculate adjusted hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for time to VTE and death.
Of 603 patients, 119 (19.7%) developed VTE, mostly comprising DVT (102 patients, 16.9%) with a smaller number of PE events (24 patients, 4.0%). Median time to DVT diagnosis was 6 days (IQR 2–11) and to PE diagnosis 6.5 days (IQR 2–16.5). Mechanical prophylaxis (MP) was used in 91% of patients on day 1, 97% of patients on day 3 and 98% of patients on day 7. Pharmacological prophylaxis was given in 5% of patients on day 1, 30% of patients on day 3 and 57% of patients on day 7. Factors associated with time to VTE were age (HR per year 1.02, 95% CI 1.01–1.03), patient weight (HR per kg 1.01, 95% CI 1–1.02) and TBI severity according to the International Mission for Prognosis and Analysis of Clinical Trials risk of poor outcome (HR per 10% increase 1.12, 95% CI 1.01–1.25). The development of VTE was not associated with mortality (HR 0.92, 95% CI 0.51–1.65).
Despite mechanical and pharmacological prophylaxis, VTE occurs in one out of every five patients with TBI treated in the ICU. Higher age, greater weight and greater severity of TBI increase the risk. The development of VTE was not associated with excess mortality.
Revue sur les facteurs influençant l’activité physique des survivants de réanimation
Parry et al., ICM, 2017
To identify, evaluate and synthesise studies examining the barriers and enablers for survivors of critical illness to participate in physical activity in the ICU and post-ICU settings from the perspective of patients, caregivers and healthcare providers.
Systematic review of articles using five electronic databases: MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Scopus. Quantitative and qualitative studies that were published in English in a peer-reviewed journal and assessed barriers or enablers for survivors of critical illness to perform physical activity were included. Prospero ID: CRD42016035454.
Eighty-nine papers were included. Five major themes and 28 sub-themes were identified, encompassing: (1) patient physical and psychological capability to perform physical activity, including delirium, sedation, illness severity, comorbidities, weakness, anxiety, confidence and motivation; (2) safety influences, including physiological stability and concern for lines, e.g. risk of dislodgement; (3) culture and team influences, including leadership, interprofessional communication, administrative buy-in, clinician expertise and knowledge; (4) motivation and beliefs regarding the benefits/risks; and (5) environmental influences, including funding, access to rehabilitation programs, staffing and equipment.
The main barriers identified were patient physical and psychological capability to perform physical activity, safety concerns, lack of leadership and ICU culture of mobility, lack of interprofessional communication, expertise and knowledge, and lack of staffing/equipment and funding to provide rehabilitation programs. Barriers and enablers are multidimensional and span diverse factors. The majority of these barriers are modifiable and can be targeted in future clinical practice.
Revue de la littérature : L’ECCO2R encore expérimental dans l’insuffisance respiratoire aigue
Morelli et al, ICM, 2017
Intérêt prédictif des mesures physiologiques d’extraction en oxygène ?
Shaban, et al., Shock, 2017
Compromised tissue oxygenation leads to anaerobiosis, leading to organ failure and death. This study attempts to demonstrate the predictive abilities of the Pv-aCO2 gap and Pv-aCO2/Ca-vO2 ratio in shock patients undergoing resuscitation.
In a prospective study, consecutive patients with shock were included. Timed measurements of Pv-aCO2 gap, ScvO2, lactate, and Pv-aCO2/ Ca-vO2 ratio were obtained. The association between the mortality and each variable at all intervals was analyzed. Receiver operating characteristics curves were built.
Fifty patients were enrolled. Intensive care unit survivors had a higher Pv-aCO2/ Ca-vO2 ratio at time 0 (0.21, interquartile range [IQR] 0.14 vs. 0.27, IQR 0.38, P = 0.032) and at 3 h (0.27, IQR 0.08 vs. 0.21, IQR 0.12, P= 0.035).Twenty-eight day survival was higher in patients with a low Pv-aCO2 gap at time 0 (7.5, IQR 7 vs. 4.8, IQR 5, P = 0.007).
Baseline Pv-aCO2 gap and Pv-aCO2/Ca-vO2 ratio showed good ability to predict 28-day mortality as seen by AUC 0.728 (95% CI 0.578–0.877, P = 0.007) and 0.711 (95% CI 0.563–0.860, P = 0.013). A cut-off point of Pv-aCO2 gap ≥6 mm Hg identified 28-day mortality (75% vs. 45.5%, P = 0.034). The best cutoff values, at baseline, to predict 28-day mortality were 0.25 for the Pv-aCO2/Ca-vO2 ratio (sensitivity 58%, specificity 85%, LR+ 3.86, LR− 0.49) and 6.3 for the Pv-aCO2 gap (sensitivity 58%, specificity 79%, LR+ 2.76, LR− 0.53).
This study suggests that Pv-aCO2 gap and Pv-aCO2/Ca-vO2 ratio are discriminating predictors of 28-day mortality and can be used to provide supplementary information during resuscitation in shock.
Intérêt du Sévoflurane dans le SDRA ?
Jabaudon et al., AJRCCM, 2017
Rationale: Sevoflurane improves gas exchange, and reduces alveolar edema and inflammation in preclinical studies of lung injury, but its therapeutic effects have never been investigated in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).
Objectives: To assess whether sevoflurane would improve gas exchange and inflammation in ARDS.
Methods: We did a parallel, open-label single-center randomized controlled trial at three intensive care units from a French university hospital between April 2014 and February 2016. Adult patients were randomized within 24 hours of moderate-to-severe ARDS onset to receive either intravenous midazolam or inhaled sevoflurane for 48 hours. The primary outcome was the PaO2/FiO2 ratio on Day 2. Secondary endpoints included alveolar and plasma levels of cytokines and soluble form of the receptor for advanced glycation end-products, and safety. Investigators who did the analyses were masked to group allocation. Analysis was by intention to treat.
Measurements and Main Results: Twenty-five patients were assigned to the sevoflurane group and 25 to the midazolam group. On Day 2, PaO2/FiO2 ratio was higher in the sevoflurane group than in the midazolam group (mean ± SD, 205 ± 56 vs. 166 ± 59, respectively; P = 0.04). There was a significant reduction over time in cytokines and soluble form of the receptor for advanced glycation end-products levels in the sevoflurane group, compared with the midazolam group, and no serious adverse event was observed with sevoflurane.
Conclusions: In patients with ARDS, use of inhaled sevoflurane improved oxygenation and decreased levels of a marker of epithelial injury and of some inflammatory markers, compared with midazolam.
Survie & Durée sous ECMO
Smith et al., CC, 2017
Veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA ECMO) is an effective rescue therapy for severe cardiorespiratory failure, but morbidity and mortality are high. We hypothesised that survival decreases with longer VA ECMO treatment. We examined the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization (ELSO) registry for a relationship between VA ECMO duration and in-hospital mortality, and covariates including indication for support.
All VA runs from the ELSO database from 2002 to 2012 were extracted. Multiple runs and non-VA runs were excluded. Runs were categorized into diagnostic groups. Logistic regression for analysis of the effect of duration on outcome, and multivariate regression for diagnosis and other baseline factors were performed. Non-linear models including piecewise logistic models were fitted.
There were 2699 runs analysed over 14,747 days. Logistic regression analysis of the effect of duration on outcome, and multivariate regression analysis of diagnosis and other baseline factors were performed. In-hospital survival was 41.4% (95% CI 39.6–43.3). 75% of patients were supported for less than 1 week and 96% for less than 3 weeks. Median duration (4 days IQR 2.0–6.8) was greater in survivors (4.1 (IQR 2.5–6.7) vs 3.8 (IQR 1.7–7.0) p = 0.002). The final multivariate model demonstrated increasing survival to day 4 (OR 1.53 (95% CI 1.37–1.71) p < 0.001), decreasing from day 4 to 12 (OR 0.86 (95% CI 0.81–0.91), p < 0.001) with no significant change thereafter (OR 0.98 (95% CI 0.94–1.02), p = 0.400).
ECMO for 4 days or less is associated with higher mortality, likely reflecting early treatment failure. Survival is highest when patients are weaned on the fourth day of ECMO but likely decreases into the second week. While this does not suggest weaning at this point will produce better outcomes, it does reflect the likely time course of ECMO as a bridge in severe shock. Patients with some underlying conditions (like myocarditis and heart transplantation) achieve better outcomes despite longer support duration. These findings merit prospective study for the development of prognostic models and weaning strategies.
Performances diagnostiques du Doppler transcranien dans l’HTIC
Rasulo et al., CC, 2017
Untimely diagnosis of intracranial hypertension may lead to delays in therapy and worsening of outcome. Transcranial Doppler (TCD) detects variations in cerebral blood flow velocity which may correlate with intracranial pressure (ICP). We investigated if intracranial hypertension can be accurately excluded through use of TCD.
This was a multicenter prospective pilot study in patients with acute brain injury requiring invasive ICP (ICPi) monitoring. ICP estimated with TCD (ICPtcd) was compared with ICPi in three separate time frames: immediately before ICPi placement, immediately after ICPi placement, and 3 hours following ICPi positioning. Sensitivity and specificity, and concordance correlation coefficient between ICPi and ICPtcd were calculated. Receiver operating curve (ROC) and the area under the curve (AUC) analyses were estimated after measurement averaging over time.
A total of 38 patients were enrolled, and of these 12 (31.6%) had at least one episode of intracranial hypertension. One hundred fourteen paired measurements of ICPi and ICPtcd were gathered for analysis. With dichotomized ICPi (≤20 mmHg vs >20 mmHg), the sensitivity of ICPtcd was 100%; all measurements with high ICPi (>20 mmHg) also had a high ICPtcd values. Bland-Altman plot showed an overestimation of 6.2 mmHg (95% CI 5.08-7.30 mmHg) for ICPtcd compared to ICPi. AUC was 96.0% (95% CI 89.8-100%) and the estimated best threshold was at ICPi of 24.8 mmHg corresponding to a sensitivity 100% and a specificity of 91.2%.
This study provides preliminary evidence that ICPtcd may accurately exclude intracranial hypertension in patients with acute brain injury. Future studies with adequate power are needed to confirm this result.
Recommendations sur la gestion du delirium post-opératoire
Aldecoa et al, EJA, 2017
L’isoflurane améliore la dysfonction cardiaque et la survie dans le Tako-Tsubo ?
Oras et al., Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, 2017
Takotsubo syndrome (TS) is an acute cardiac condition, often triggered by critical illness, for which no specific treatment exists. Previously, we showed that isoflurane can prevent experimental TS. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential treatment effects of isoflurane. Our primary hypothesis was that early treatment with isoflurane attenuates left ventricular akinesia in experimental TS.
In propofol-sedated animals, TS was induced by an intraperitoneal bolus of isoprenaline (50 mg/kg). Animals were randomized to one of six groups (n = 15 in each group), and 1% isoflurane was administered for 90 min in all groups. Isoflurane treatment was started at 0, 10, 30 (early treatment) or 120 (late treatment) minutes after isoprenaline injection. One additional late treatment group received isoflurane 0.5% for 180 min. A control group did not receive isoflurane. Left ventricular (LV) echocardiographic examination was performed at 90 min and 48 h after isoprenaline. Mortality was assessed at 48 h.
Median degree of LV akinesia at 90 min was 24% in the control group and 0% in the early treatment groups (P < 0.001). Stroke volume, cardiac output and LV ejection fraction were higher in the early treatment groups vs. controls (P < 0.01). Mortality was lower in the early treatment groups (24%) vs. controls (86%) (P < 0.001). Mortality did not differ between the late treatment groups and controls.
Early treatment with isoflurane attenuates the LV akinesia and improves survival in experimental TS. Isoflurane sedation in patients at risk of developing Takotsubo syndrome could be a subject for future studies.