Biblio du mois : Décembre 2018

31 décembre 2018FormationLa Biblio du MoisNon classé

 

 

Et ainsi se clôture cette belle année 2018 ! On vous livre une biblio du mois fournie, de quoi aggrémenter les débats de début d’année 2019 !

Une étude du JAMA sur les coûts de la santé, de la cardiologie interventionnelle (mais jusqu’où iront les cardiologues ?!) mais aussi de la ventilation avec l’APRV, de l’hémodynamique avec les recommandations d’experts sur la prise en charge de l’ACR mais aussi le bénéfice potentiel des aérosols d’acide tranexamique !

On abordera le futur avec des stats, de la génétique et de l’individualisation de prise en charge avec la PEEP individualisée en per-opératoire.

Mais tout ça, c’est rien par rapport à ce que l’on vous prépare pour l’année 2019 !

Et ça commence dès le 3 janvier pour se retrouver après les fêtes 😉

Les évènements AJAR Paris : http://www.ajar-online.fr/category/actualites/evenements/

 

 

 

 

 

 

Coût de la santé : Comparaison internationale

 

 

 

 

Papanicolas et al., JAMA, 2018

https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/2674671?guestAccessKey=29ae801c-a8a6-4f8b-9889-b9f0ef4345f4&utm_source=silverchair&utm_campaign=jama_network&utm_content=weekly_highlights&cmp=1&utm_medium=email

doi:10.1001/jama.2018.1150

 

 

 

Importance  Health care spending in the United States is a major concern and is higher than in other high-income countries, but there is little evidence that efforts to reform US health care delivery have had a meaningful influence on controlling health care spending and costs.

Objective  To compare potential drivers of spending, such as structural capacity and utilization, in the United States with those of 10 of the highest-income countries (United Kingdom, Canada, Germany, Australia, Japan, Sweden, France, the Netherlands, Switzerland, and Denmark) to gain insight into what the United States can learn from these nations.

Evidence  Analysis of data primarily from 2013-2016 from key international organizations including the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), comparing underlying differences in structural features, types of health care and social spending, and performance between the United States and 10 high-income countries. When data were not available for a given country or more accurate country-level estimates were available from sources other than the OECD, country-specific data sources were used.

Findings  In 2016, the US spent 17.8% of its gross domestic product on health care, and spending in the other countries ranged from 9.6% (Australia) to 12.4% (Switzerland). The proportion of the population with health insurance was 90% in the US, lower than the other countries (range, 99%-100%), and the US had the highest proportion of private health insurance (55.3%). For some determinants of health such as smoking, the US ranked second lowest of the countries (11.4% of the US population ≥15 years smokes daily; mean of all 11 countries, 16.6%), but the US had the highest percentage of adults who were overweight or obese at 70.1% (range for other countries, 23.8%-63.4%; mean of all 11 countries, 55.6%). Life expectancy in the US was the lowest of the 11 countries at 78.8 years (range for other countries, 80.7-83.9 years; mean of all 11 countries, 81.7 years), and infant mortality was the highest (5.8 deaths per 1000 live births in the US; 3.6 per 1000 for all 11 countries). The US did not differ substantially from the other countries in physician workforce (2.6 physicians per 1000; 43% primary care physicians), or nursing workforce (11.1 nurses per 1000). The US had comparable numbers of hospital beds (2.8 per 1000) but higher utilization of magnetic resonance imaging (118 per 1000) and computed tomography (245 per 1000) vs other countries. The US had similar rates of utilization (US discharges per 100 000 were 192 for acute myocardial infarction, 365 for pneumonia, 230 for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; procedures per 100 000 were 204 for hip replacement, 226 for knee replacement, and 79 for coronary artery bypass graft surgery). Administrative costs of care (activities relating to planning, regulating, and managing health systems and services) accounted for 8% in the US vs a range of 1% to 3% in the other countries. For pharmaceutical costs, spending per capita was $1443 in the US vs a range of $466 to $939 in other countries. Salaries of physicians and nurses were higher in the US; for example, generalist physicians salaries were $218 173 in the US compared with a range of $86 607 to $154 126 in the other countries.

Conclusions and Relevance  The United States spent approximately twice as much as other high-income countries on medical care, yet utilization rates in the United States were largely similar to those in other nations. Prices of labor and goods, including pharmaceuticals, and administrative costs appeared to be the major drivers of the difference in overall cost between the United States and other high-income countries. As patients, physicians, policy makers, and legislators actively debate the future of the US health system, data such as these are needed to inform policy decisions.

 

 

 

Réparation mitrale percutanée versus traitement médical dans les insuffisances cardiaques avec  insuffisance mitrale sévère :

 

– Etude MITRA-FR : NS

 

 

Obadia et al., NEJM, 2018

https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa1805374
DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1805374

 

 

Background

In patients who have chronic heart failure with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction, severe secondary mitral-valve regurgitation is associated with a poor prognosis. Whether percutaneous mitral-valve repair improves clinical outcomes in this patient population is unknown.

Methods

We randomly assigned patients who had severe secondary mitral regurgitation (defined as an effective regurgitant orifice area of >20 mm2 or a regurgitant volume of >30 ml per beat), a left ventricular ejection fraction between 15 and 40%, and symptomatic heart failure, in a 1:1 ratio, to undergo percutaneous mitral-valve repair in addition to receiving medical therapy (intervention group; 152 patients) or to receive medical therapy alone (control group; 152 patients). The primary efficacy outcome was a composite of death from any cause or unplanned hospitalization for heart failure at 12 months.

Results

At 12 months, the rate of the primary outcome was 54.6% (83 of 152 patients) in the intervention group and 51.3% (78 of 152 patients) in the control group (odds ratio, 1.16; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.73 to 1.84; P=0.53). The rate of death from any cause was 24.3% (37 of 152 patients) in the intervention group and 22.4% (34 of 152 patients) in the control group (hazard ratio, 1.11; 95% CI, 0.69 to 1.77). The rate of unplanned hospitalization for heart failure was 48.7% (74 of 152 patients) in the intervention group and 47.4% (72 of 152 patients) in the control group (hazard ratio, 1.13; 95% CI, 0.81 to 1.56).

Conclusions

Among patients with severe secondary mitral regurgitation, the rate of death or unplanned hospitalization for heart failure at 1 year did not differ significantly between patients who underwent percutaneous mitral-valve repair in addition to receiving medical therapy and those who received medical therapy alone.

-Etude COAPT : positive

Stone et al., NEJM, 2018

https://www.nejm.org/doi/10.1056/NEJMoa1806640

DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1806640

Background

Among patients with heart failure who have mitral regurgitation due to left ventricular dysfunction, the prognosis is poor. Transcatheter mitral-valve repair may improve their clinical outcomes.

Methods

At 78 sites in the United States and Canada, we enrolled patients with heart failure and moderate-to-severe or severe secondary mitral regurgitation who remained symptomatic despite the use of maximal doses of guideline-directed medical therapy. Patients were randomly assigned to transcatheter mitral-valve repair plus medical therapy (device group) or medical therapy alone (control group). The primary effectiveness end point was all hospitalizations for heart failure within 24 months of follow-up. The primary safety end point was freedom from device-related complications at 12 months; the rate for this end point was compared with a prespecified objective performance goal of 88.0%.

Results

Of the 614 patients who were enrolled in the trial, 302 were assigned to the device group and 312 to the control group. The annualized rate of all hospitalizations for heart failure within 24 months was 35.8% per patient-year in the device group as compared with 67.9% per patient-year in the control group (hazard ratio, 0.53; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.40 to 0.70; P<0.001). The rate of freedom from device-related complications at 12 months was 96.6% (lower 95% confidence limit, 94.8%; P<0.001 for comparison with the performance goal). Death from any cause within 24 months occurred in 29.1% of the patients in the device group as compared with 46.1% in the control group (hazard ratio, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.46 to 0.82; P<0.001).

Conclusions

Among patients with heart failure and moderate-to-severe or severe secondary mitral regurgitation who remained symptomatic despite the use of maximal doses of guideline-directed medical therapy, transcatheter mitral-valve repair resulted in a lower rate of hospitalization for heart failure and lower all-cause mortality within 24 months of follow-up than medical therapy alone. The rate of freedom from device-related complications exceeded a prespecified safety threshold.

L’analyse génétique rattrape des maladies non diagnostiquées par l’Homme ?

 

 

Splinter et al., NEJM, 2018

https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa1714458

DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1714458

 

 

Background

Many patients remain without a diagnosis despite extensive medical evaluation. The Undiagnosed Diseases Network (UDN) was established to apply a multidisciplinary model in the evaluation of the most challenging cases and to identify the biologic characteristics of newly discovered diseases. The UDN, which is funded by the National Institutes of Health, was formed in 2014 as a network of seven clinical sites, two sequencing cores, and a coordinating center. Later, a central biorepository, a metabolomics core, and a model organisms screening center were added.

Methods

We evaluated patients who were referred to the UDN over a period of 20 months. The patients were required to have an undiagnosed condition despite thorough evaluation by a health care provider. We determined the rate of diagnosis among patients who subsequently had a complete evaluation, and we observed the effect of diagnosis on medical care.

Results

A total of 1519 patients (53% female) were referred to the UDN, of whom 601 (40%) were accepted for evaluation. Of the accepted patients, 192 (32%) had previously undergone exome sequencing. Symptoms were neurologic in 40% of the applicants, musculoskeletal in 10%, immunologic in 7%, gastrointestinal in 7%, and rheumatologic in 6%. Of the 382 patients who had a complete evaluation, 132 received a diagnosis, yielding a rate of diagnosis of 35%. A total of 15 diagnoses (11%) were made by clinical review alone, and 98 (74%) were made by exome or genome sequencing. Of the diagnoses, 21% led to recommendations regarding changes in therapy, 37% led to changes in diagnostic testing, and 36% led to variant-specific genetic counseling. We defined 31 new syndromes.

Conclusions

The UDN established a diagnosis in 132 of the 382 patients who had a complete evaluation, yielding a rate of diagnosis of 35%.

 

 

 

Pupillométrie pronostique en post-ACR ?

 

Oddo et al., ICM, 2018

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00134-018-5448-6

 

 

Purpose

To assess the ability of quantitative pupillometry [using the Neurological Pupil index (NPi)] to predict an unfavorable neurological outcome after cardiac arrest (CA).

Methods

We performed a prospective international multicenter study (10 centers) in adult comatose CA patients. Quantitative NPi and standard manual pupillary light reflex (sPLR)—blinded to clinicians and outcome assessors—were recorded in parallel from day 1 to 3 after CA. Primary study endpoint was to compare the value of NPi versus sPLR to predict 3-month Cerebral Performance Category (CPC), dichotomized as favorable (CPC 1–2: full recovery or moderate disability) versus unfavorable outcome (CPC 3–5: severe disability, vegetative state, or death).

Results

At any time between day 1 and 3, an NPi ≤ 2 (n = 456 patients) had a 51% (95% CI 49–53) negative predictive value and a 100% positive predictive value [PPV; 0% (0–2) false-positive rate], with a 100% (98–100) specificity and 32% (27–38) sensitivity for the prediction of unfavorable outcome. Compared with NPi, sPLR had significantly lower PPV and significantly lower specificity (p  < 0.001 at day 1 and 2; p  = 0.06 at day 3). The combination of NPi ≤ 2 with bilaterally absent somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEP; n = 188 patients) provided higher sensitivity [58% (49–67) vs. 48% (39–57) for SSEP alone], with comparable specificity [100% (94–100)].

Conclusions

Quantitative NPi had excellent ability to predict an unfavorable outcome from day 1 after CA, with no false positives, and significantly higher specificity than standard manual pupillary examination. The addition of NPi to SSEP increased sensitivity of outcome prediction, while maintaining 100% specificity.

L’APRV : pas pour les enfants ?

 

 

https://www.atsjournals.org/doi/10.1164/rccm.201705-0989OC

 

Rationale: Although case series describe benefits of airway pressure release ventilation (APRV), this mode of ventilation has not been evaluated against the conventional low–tidal volume ventilation (LoTV) in children with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).

Objectives: To compare the effect of APRV and conventional LoTV on ventilator-free days in children with ARDS.

Methods: This open-label, parallel-design randomized controlled trial was conducted in a 15-bed ICU. Children aged 1 month to 12 years satisfying the modified Berlin definition were included. We excluded children with air leaks, increased intracranial pressure, poor spontaneous breathing efforts, chronic lung disease, and beyond 24 hours of ARDS diagnosis or 72 hours of ventilation. Children were randomized using unstratified, variable-sized block technique. A priori interim analysis was planned at 50% enrollment. All enrolled children were followed up until 180 days after enrollment or death, whichever was earlier.

Measurements and Main Results: The trial was terminated after 50% enrollment (52 children) when analysis revealed higher mortality in the intervention arm. Ventilator-free days were statistically similar in both arms (P = 0.23). The 28-day all-cause mortality was 53.8% in APRV as compared with 26.9% among control subjects (risk ratio, 2.0; 95% confidence interval, 0.97–4.1; Fisher exact P = 0.089). The multivariate-adjusted risk ratio of death for APRV compared with LoTV was 2.02 (95% confidence interval, 0.99–4.12; P = 0.05). Higher mean airway pressures, greater spontaneous breathing, and early improvement in oxygenation were seen in the intervention arm.

Conclusions: APRV, as a primary ventilation strategy in children with ARDS, was associated with a trend toward higher mortality compared with the conventional LoTV. Limitations should be considered while interpreting these results.

 

 

 

 

Valeur prédictive de mesures répétées du qSOFA chez les patients avec une suspicion d’infection

https://journals.lww.com/ccmjournal/Abstract/2018/12000/Evaluation_of_Repeated_Quick_Sepsis_Related_Organ.3.aspx
Kievlan et al., CCM 2018
DOI:  10.1097/CCM.0000000000003360

Objectives: Among patients with suspected infection, a single measurement of the quick Sepsis-related Organ Failure Assessment has good predictive validity for sepsis, yet the increase in validity from repeated measurements is unknown. We sought to determine the incremental predictive validity for sepsis of repeated quick Sepsis-related Organ Failure Assessment measurements over 48 hours compared with the initial measurement.

Design: Retrospective cohort study.

Setting: Twelve hospitals in southwestern Pennsylvania in 2012.

Patients: All adult medical and surgical encounters in the emergency department, hospital ward, postanesthesia care unit, and ICU.

Interventions: None.

Measurements and Main Results: Among 1.3 million adult encounters, we identified those with a first episode of suspected infection. Using the maximum quick Sepsis-related Organ Failure Assessment score in each 6-hour epoch from onset of suspected infection until 48 hours later, we characterized repeated quick Sepsis-related Organ Failure Assessment with: 1) summary measures (e.g., mean over 48 hr), 2) crude trajectory groups, and 3) group-based trajectory modeling. We measured the predictive validity of repeated quick Sepsis-related Organ Failure Assessment using incremental changes in the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for in-hospital mortality beyond that of baseline risk (age, sex, race/ethnicity, and comorbidity). Of 37,591 encounters with suspected infection, 1,769 (4.7%) died before discharge. Both the mean quick Sepsis-related Organ Failure Assessment at 48 hours (area under the receiver operating characteristic, 0.86 [95% CI, 0.85–0.86]) and crude trajectory groups (area under the receiver operating characteristic, 0.83 [95% CI, 0.83–0.83]) improved predictive validity compared with initial quick Sepsis-related Organ Failure Assessment (area under the receiver operating characteristic, 0.79 [95% CI, 0.78–0.80]) (p < 0.001 for both). Group-based trajectory modeling found five trajectories (quick Sepsis-related Organ Failure Assessment always low, increasing, decreasing, moderate, and always high) with greater predictive validity than the initial measurement (area under the receiver operating characteristic, 0.85 [95% CI, 0.84–0.85]; p < 0.001).

Conclusions: Repeated measurements of quick Sepsis-related Organ Failure Assessment improve predictive validity for sepsis using in-hospital mortality compared with a single measurement of quick Sepsis-related Organ Failure Assessment at the time a clinician suspects infection.

Faisabilité de la ventilation à petit volume en mode APRV

Hirshberg et al., CCM 2018
https://journals.lww.com/ccmjournal/Fulltext/2018/12000/Randomized_Feasibility_Trial_of_a_Low_Tidal.7.aspx
DOI: 10.1097/CCM.0000000000003437

Objectives: Low tidal volume (= tidal volume ≤ 6 mL/kg, predicted body weight) ventilation using volume control benefits patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Airway pressure release ventilation is an alternative to low tidal volume-volume control ventilation, but the release breaths generated are variable and can exceed tidal volume breaths of low tidal volume-volume control. We evaluate the application of a low tidal volume-compatible airway pressure release ventilation protocol that manages release volumes on both clinical and feasibility endpoints.

Design: We designed a prospective randomized trial in patients with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure. We randomized patients to low tidal volume-volume control, low tidal volume-airway pressure release ventilation, and traditional airway pressure release ventilation with a planned enrollment of 246 patients. The study was stopped early because of low enrollment and inability to consistently achieve tidal volumes less than 6.5 mL/kg in the low tidal volume-airway pressure release ventilation arm. Although the primary clinical study endpoint was PaO2/FIO2 on study day 3, we highlight the feasibility outcomes related to tidal volumes in both arms.

Setting: Four Intermountain Healthcare tertiary ICUs.

Patients: Adult ICU patients with hypoxemic respiratory failure anticipated to require prolonged mechanical ventilation.

Interventions: Low tidal volume-volume control, airway pressure release ventilation, and low tidal volume-airway pressure release ventilation.

Measurements and Main Results: We observed wide variability and higher tidal (release for airway pressure release ventilation) volumes in both airway pressure release ventilation (8.6 mL/kg; 95% CI, 7.8–9.6) and low tidal volume-airway pressure release ventilation (8.0; 95% CI, 7.3–8.9) than volume control (6.8; 95% CI, 6.2–7.5; p = 0.005) with no difference between airway pressure release ventilation and low tidal volume-airway pressure release ventilation (p = 0.58). Recognizing the limitations of small sample size, we observed no difference in 52 patients in day 3 PaO2/ FIO2 (p = 0.92). We also observed no significant difference between arms in sedation, vasoactive medications, or occurrence of pneumothorax.

Conclusions: Airway pressure release ventilation resulted in release volumes often exceeding 12 mL/kg despite a protocol designed to target low tidal volume ventilation. Current airway pressure release ventilation protocols are unable to achieve consistent and reproducible delivery of low tidal volume ventilation goals. A large-scale efficacy trial of low tidal volume-airway pressure release ventilation is not feasible at this time in the absence of an explicit, generalizable, and reproducible low tidal volume-airway pressure release ventilation protocol.

Les méthodes statistiques utilisées dans les essais cliniques en réanimation

McCullough et al., CCM 2018
https://journals.lww.com/ccmjournal/Abstract/2018/12000/The_Statistical_Curriculum_Within_Randomized.12.aspx
DOI: 10.1097/CCM.0000000000003380
Objectives: Incomplete biostatistical knowledge among clinicians is widely described. This study aimed to categorize and summarize the statistical methodology within recent critical care randomized controlled trials.

Design: Descriptive analysis, with comparison of findings to previous work.

Setting: Ten high-impact clinical journals publishing trials in critical illness.

Subjects: Randomized controlled trials published between 2011 and 2015 inclusive.

Interventions: Data extraction from published reports.

Measurements and Main Results: The frequency and overall proportion of each statistical method encountered, grouped according to those used to generate each trial’s primary outcome and separately according to underlying statistical methodology. Subsequent analysis compared these proportions with previously published reports. A total of 580 statistical tests or methods were identified within 116 original randomized controlled trials published between 2011 and 2015. Overall, the chi-square test was the most commonly encountered (70/116; 60%), followed by the Cox proportional hazards model (63/116; 54%) and logistic regression (53/116; 46%). When classified according to underlying statistical assumptions, the most common types of analyses were tests of 2 × 2 contingency tables and nonparametric tests of rank order. A greater proportion of more complex methodology was observed compared with trial reports from previous work.

Conclusions: Physicians assessing recent randomized controlled trials in critical illness encounter results derived from a substantial and potentially expanding range of biostatistical methods. In-depth training in the assumptions and limitations of these current and emerging biostatistical methods may not be practically achievable for most clinicians, making accessible specialist biostatistical support an asset to evidence-based clinical practice.

Revue sur les types de delirium de réanimation

Krewulak et al., CCM 2018
https://journals.lww.com/ccmjournal/Abstract/2018/12000/Incidence_and_Prevalence_of_Delirium_Subtypes_in.17.aspx
DOI: 10.1097/CCM.0000000000003402

L’impact de différentes stratégies de médecine péri-opératoire sur la mortalité après une laparotomie en urgence

Oliver et al., BJA 2018
https://bjanaesthesia.org/article/S0007-0912(18)30653-6/fulltext
DOI:10.1016/j.bja.2018.07.040
Background

Studies across healthcare systems have demonstrated between-hospital variation in survival after an emergency laparotomy. We postulate that this variation can be explained by differences in perioperative process delivery, underpinning organisational structures, and associated hospital characteristics.
Methods

We performed this nationwide, registry-based, prospective cohort study using data from the National Emergency Laparotomy Audit organisational and patient audit data sets. Outcome measures were all-cause 30- and 90-day postoperative mortality. We estimated adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for perioperative processes and organisational structures and characteristics by fitting multilevel logistic regression models.
Results

The cohort comprised 39 903 patients undergoing surgery at 185 hospitals. Controlling for case mix and clustering, a substantial proportion of between-hospital mortality variation was explained by differences in processes, infrastructure, and hospital characteristics. Perioperative care pathways [OR: 0.86; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.76–0.96; and OR: 0.89; 95% CI: 0.81–0.99] and emergency surgical units (OR: 0.89; 95% CI: 0.80–0.99; and OR: 0.89; 95% CI: 0.81–0.98) were associated with reduced 30- and 90-day mortality, respectively. In contrast, infrequent consultant-delivered intraoperative care was associated with increased 30- and 90-day mortality (OR: 1.61; 95% CI: 1.01–2.56; and OR: 1.61; 95% CI: 1.08–2.39, respectively). Postoperative geriatric medicine review was associated with substantially lower mortality in older (≥70 yr) patients (OR: 0.35; 95% CI: 0.29–0.42; and OR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.55–0.73, respectively).
Conclusions

This multicentre study identified low-technology, readily implementable structures and processes that are associated with improved survival after an emergency laparotomy. Key components of pathways, perioperative medicine input, and specialist units require further investigation.

Association entre anémie pré-opératoire et mortalité péri-opératoire

Fowler et al., BJA 2018
https://bjanaesthesia.org/article/S0007-0912(18)30749-9/fulltext
DOI: 10.1016/j.bja.2018.08.026

Background

Anaemia is associated with poor postoperative outcomes, but few studies have described the impact of preoperative anaemia in low- and middle- (LMICs), and high-income countries (HICs).
Methods

This was a planned analysis of data collected during an international 7 day cohort study of adults undergoing elective inpatient surgery. The primary outcome was in-hospital death, and the secondary outcomes were in-hospital complications. Anaemia was defined as haemoglobin <12 g dl−1 for females and <13 g dl−1 for males. Hierarchical three-level mixed-effect logistic regression models were constructed to examine the associations between preoperative anaemia and outcomes.
Results

We included 38 770 patients from 474 hospitals in 27 countries of whom 11 675 (30.1%) were anaemic. Of these, 6886 (17.8%) patients suffered a complication and 198 (0.5%) died. Patients from LMICs were younger with lower ASA physical status scores, but a similar prevalence of anaemia [LMIC: 5072 (32.5%) of 15 585 vs HIC: 6603 (28.5%) of 23 185]. Patients with moderate [odds ratio (OR): 2.70; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.88–3.87] and severe anaemia (OR: 4.09; 95% CI: 1.90–8.81) were at an increased risk of death in both HIC and LMICs. Complication rates increased with the severity of anaemia. Compared with patients in LMICs, those in HICs experienced fewer complications after an interaction term analysis [LMIC (OR: 0.92; 95% CI: 0.87–0.97) vs HIC (OR: 0.86; 95% CI: 0.84–0.87); P<0.01].
Conclusions

One-third of patients undergoing elective surgery are anaemic. These patients have an increased risk of complications and death. The prevalence of anaemia is similar amongst patients in LMICs despite their younger age and lower risk profile.

Une PEEP individualisée per-opératoire pour réduire les atélectasies post-opératoires

Pereira et al., Anesthesiology, 2018
http://anesthesiology.pubs.asahq.org/article.aspx?articleid=2705101
doi:10.1097/ALN.0000000000002435

Background: Intraoperative lung-protective ventilation has been recommended to reduce postoperative pulmonary complications after abdominal surgery. Although the protective role of a more physiologic tidal volume has been established, the added protection afforded by positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) remains uncertain. The authors hypothesized that a low fixed PEEP might not fit all patients and that an individually titrated PEEP during anesthesia might improve lung function during and after surgery.

Methods: Forty patients were studied in the operating room (20 laparoscopic and 20 open-abdominal). They underwent elective abdominal surgery and were randomized to institutional PEEP (4 cm H2O) or electrical impedance tomography–guided PEEP (applied after recruitment maneuvers and targeted at minimizing lung collapse and hyperdistension, simultaneously). Patients were extubated without changing selected PEEP or fractional inspired oxygen tension while under anesthesia and submitted to chest computed tomography after extubation. Our primary goal was to individually identify the electrical impedance tomography–guided PEEP value producing the best compromise of lung collapse and hyperdistention.

Results: Electrical impedance tomography–guided PEEP varied markedly across individuals (median, 12 cm H2O; range, 6 to 16 cm H2O; 95% CI, 10–14). Compared with PEEP of 4 cm H2O, patients randomized to the electrical impedance tomography–guided strategy had less postoperative atelectasis (6.2 ± 4.1 vs. 10.8 ± 7.1% of lung tissue mass; P = 0.017) and lower intraoperative driving pressures (mean values during surgery of 8.0 ± 1.7 vs. 11.6 ± 3.8 cm H2O; P < 0.001). The electrical impedance tomography–guided PEEP arm had higher intraoperative oxygenation (435 ± 62 vs. 266 ± 76 mmHg for laparoscopic group; P < 0.001), while presenting equivalent hemodynamics (mean arterial pressure during surgery of 80 ± 14 vs. 78 ± 15 mmHg; P = 0.821).

Conclusions: PEEP requirements vary widely among patients receiving protective tidal volumes during anesthesia for abdominal surgery. Individualized PEEP settings could reduce postoperative atelectasis (measured by computed tomography) while improving intraoperative oxygenation and driving pressures, causing minimum side effects.

 

 

 

Score prédictif de complications neurologiques en neurochirurgie

 

 

Cinotti et al., Anesthesiology, 2018

http://anesthesiology.pubs.asahq.org/article.aspx?articleid=2703485

doi:10.1097/ALN.0000000000002426

 

 

 

Background: Craniotomy for brain tumor displays significant morbidity and mortality, and no score is available to discriminate high-risk patients. Our objective was to validate a prediction score for postoperative neurosurgical complications in this setting.

Methods: Creation of a score in a learning cohort from a prospective specific database of 1,094 patients undergoing elective brain tumor craniotomy in one center from 2008 to 2012. The validation cohort was validated in a prospective multicenter independent cohort of 830 patients from 2013 to 2015 in six university hospitals in France. The primary outcome variable was postoperative neurologic complications requiring in–intensive care unit management (intracranial hypertension, intracranial bleeding, status epilepticus, respiratory failure, impaired consciousness, unexpected motor deficit). The least absolute shrinkage and selection operator method was used for potential risk factor selection with logistic regression.

Results: Severe complications occurred in 125 (11.4%) and 90 (10.8%) patients in the learning and validation cohorts, respectively. The independent risk factors for severe complications were related to the patient (Glasgow Coma Score before surgery at or below 14, history of brain tumor surgery), tumor characteristics (greatest diameter, cerebral midline shift at least 3 mm), and perioperative management (transfusion of blood products, maximum and minimal systolic arterial pressure, duration of surgery). The positive predictive value of the score at or below 3% was 12.1%, and the negative predictive value was 100% in the learning cohort. In–intensive care unit mortality was observed in eight (0.7%) and six (0.7%) patients in the learning and validation cohorts, respectively.

Conclusions: The validation of prediction scores is the first step toward on-demand intensive care unit admission. Further research is needed to improve the score’s performance before routine use.

 

 

Revue sur Célocurine et Hyperthermie maligne

 

 

Larach et al., Anesthesiology, 2018

http://anesthesiology.pubs.asahq.org/article.aspx?articleid=2715527

doi:10.1097/ALN.0000000000002490

 

 

 

 

 

Céphalosporines : facteur de risque de Delirium en Réanimation ?

 

 

Grahl et al., Critical Care 2018

https://doi.org/10.1186/s13054-018-2262-z

https://ccforum.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13054-018-2262-z

 

 

Background

Prior retrospective cross-sectional work has associated antimicrobials with a non-specific phrase: encephalopathy without seizures. The purpose of this study is to determine whether different classes of antimicrobials have differential associations with the daily risk of delirium after critical illness is adjusted for.

Methods

Our study was a nested cohort that enrolled non-neurological critically ill adults from a medical or surgical intensive care unit (ICU) with daily follow-up to 30 days. Our independent variable was exposure to previous-day antimicrobial class: beta-lactams (subclasses: penicillins, first- to third-generation cephalosporins, fourth-generation cephalosporins, and carbapenems), macrolides, fluoroquinolones, and other. We adjusted for baseline covariates (age, comorbidities, cognition scores, sepsis, and mechanical ventilation), previous-day covariates (delirium, doses of analgesics/sedatives, and antipsychotic use), and same-day covariates (illness severity). Our primary outcome of delirium was measured by using the Confusion Assessment Method for the ICU. A daily delirium logistic regression model was used with an ICU time-restricted sensitivity analysis including daily adjustment for sepsis and mechanical ventilation.

Results

Of 418 ICU patients, delirium occurred in 308 (74%) with a median of 3 days (interquartile range 2–6) among those affected and 318 (76%) were exposed to antimicrobials. When covariates and ICU type were adjusted for, only first- to third-generation cephalosporins were associated with delirium (logistic regression model odds ratio (OR) = 2.2, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.28–3.79, P = 0.004; sensitivity analysis OR = 2.13, 95% CI 1.10–4.10, P = 0.024).

Conclusions

First-, second-, and third-generation cephalosporins doubled the odds of delirium after baseline co-morbidities, ICU type, the course of critical care, and other competing antimicrobial and psychotropic medication risks were adjusted for. We did not find an association between delirium and cefepime, penicillins, carbapenems, fluoroquinolones, or macrolides.

Bradycardie-Tachycardie après mise en hypothermie thérapeutique : facteur de mauvais pronostic neurologique post-ACR ?

 

 

Inoue et al., CC, 2018

https://ccforum.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13054-018-2276-6

https://doi.org/10.1186/s13054-018-2276-6

 

 

 

Background

The association between isolated admission heart rate (HR) and prognosis has been discussed, but not that between gross HR change and neurological outcome in patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). In the acute phase of severe TBI, HR is influenced by several factors (e.g., pain, sympathetic activation, hypovolemia, fever, body temperature). Therefore, admission HR and gross HR change should be examined in patients with TBI treated with a well-designed protocol, such as was done in the Brain Hypothermia (B-HYPO) Study.

Methods

This was a post hoc analysis of the B-HYPO Study, which was conducted as a prospective, multicenter, randomized controlled trial in patients with severe TBI receiving mild therapeutic hypothermia (MTH; 32.0 °C–34.0 °C) or fever control (35.5 °C–37.0 °C) in Japan. Patients with MTH were examined, and HR change (%HR) in the early MTH phase was calculated as follows: [admission HR – HR at day 1]/admission HR × 100. Patients were divided into six groups, using admission HR (< 80, 80–99, ≤ 100) and median of %HR; i.e., group (Admission HR < 80 and %HR ≥ 18.6); group (Admission HR < 80 and %HR < 18.6); group (Admission HR 80–99 and %HR ≥ 18.6); group (Admission HR 80–99 and %HR < 18.6); group (Admission HR ≥100 and %HR ≥ 18.6); and group (Admission HR ≥100 and %HR < 18.6). The primary outcome was an adjusted predicted probability of unfavorable neurological outcome at 6 months after TBI according to Glasgow Outcome Scale score, which is a measure of functional recovery and defined as severe disability, persistent vegetative state, and death.

Results

Overall, 79 patients with MTH (52.7% of the original trial) were examined; among these, unfavorable neurological outcomes were observed in 53.2%. Among all the groups, group (Admission HR ≥100 and %HR < 18.6) exhibited the highest proportion of unfavorable outcomes, and 82.3% of patients had an adjusted predicted probability of unfavorable outcomes, whereas those in group (Admission HR < 80 and %HR ≥ 18.6) developed only 22.8% (p = 0.04).

Conclusions

Mild HR decrease during the early phase of targeted temperature management following tachycardia at admission can be associated with unfavorable neurological outcomes after severe TBI.

Estimation de la sévérité des grippes

 

 

Liselotte van Asten et al., Critical Care 2018

https://ccforum.biomedcentral.com/track/pdf/10.1186/s13054-018-2274-8

 

 

 

Background

While influenza-like-illness (ILI) surveillance is well-organized at primary care level in Europe, few data are available on more severe cases. With retrospective data from intensive care units (ICU) we aim to fill this current knowledge gap. Using multiple parameters proposed by the World Health Organization we estimate the burden of severe acute respiratory infections (SARI) in the ICU and how this varies between influenza epidemics.

Methods

We analyzed weekly ICU admissions in the Netherlands (2007–2016) from the National Intensive Care Evaluation (NICE) quality registry (100% coverage of adult ICUs in 2016; population size 14 million) to calculate SARI incidence, SARI peak levels, ICU SARI mortality, SARI mean Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) IV score, and the ICU SARI/ILI ratio. These parameters were calculated both yearly and per separate influenza epidemic (defined epidemic weeks). A SARI syndrome was defined as admission diagnosis being any of six pneumonia or pulmonary sepsis codes in the APACHE IV prognostic model. Influenza epidemic periods were retrieved from primary care sentinel influenza surveillance data.

Results

Annually, an average of 13% of medical admissions to adult ICUs were for a SARI but varied widely between weeks (minimum 5% to maximum 25% per week). Admissions for bacterial pneumonia (59%) and pulmonary sepsis (25%) contributed most to ICU SARI. Between the eight different influenza epidemics under study, the value of each of the severity parameters varied. Per parameter the minimum and maximum of those eight values were as follows: ICU SARI incidence 558–2400 cumulated admissions nationwide, rate 0.40–1.71/10,000 inhabitants; average APACHE score 71–78; ICU SARI mortality 13–20%; ICU SARI/ILI ratio 8–17 cases per 1000 expected medically attended ILI in primary care); peak-incidence 101–188 ICU SARI admissions in highest-incidence week, rate 0.07–0.13/10,000 population).

Conclusions

In the ICU there is great variation between the yearly influenza epidemic periods in terms of different influenza severity parameters. The parameters also complement each other by reflecting different aspects of severity. Prospective syndromic ICU SARI surveillance, as proposed by the World Health Organization, thereby would provide insight into the severity of ongoing influenza epidemics, which differ from season to season.

Recommandations américaines de prise en charge d’ACR chez l’adulte et l’enfant

 

https://www.ahajournals.org/doi/pdf/10.1161/CIR.0000000000000611

DOI: 10.1161/CIR.0000000000000611

Que faire pour les SCA ST- ?

 

 

https://doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.118.037152

Kofoed et al., Circulation. 2018

https://www.ahajournals.org/doi/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.118.037152

 

 

 

Background:

The optimal timing of invasive coronary angiography (ICA) and revascularization in patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome is not well defined. We tested the hypothesis that a strategy of very early ICA and possible revascularization within 12 hours of diagnosis is superior to an invasive strategy performed within 48 to 72 hours in terms of clinical outcomes.

Methods:

Patients admitted with clinical suspicion of non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome in the Capital Region of Copenhagen, Denmark, were screened for inclusion in the VERDICT trial (Very Early Versus Deferred Invasive Evaluation Using Computerized Tomography) (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02061891). Patients with ECG changes indicating new ischemia or elevated troponin, in whom ICA was clinically indicated and deemed logistically feasible within 12 hours, were randomized 1:1 to ICA within 12 hours or standard invasive care within 48 to 72 hours. The primary end point was a combination of all-cause death, nonfatal recurrent myocardial infarction, hospital admission for refractory myocardial ischemia, or hospital admission for heart failure.

Results:

A total of 2147 patients were randomized; 1075 patients allocated to very early invasive evaluation had ICA performed at a median of 4.7 hours after randomization, whereas 1072 patients assigned to standard invasive care had ICA performed 61.6 hours after randomization. Among patients with significant coronary artery disease identified by ICA, coronary revascularization was performed in 88.4% (very early ICA) and 83.1% (standard invasive care). Within a median follow-up time of 4.3 (interquartile range, 4.1–4.4) years, the primary end point occurred in 296 (27.5%) of participants in the very early ICA group and 316 (29.5%) in the standard care group (hazard ratio, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.78–1.08). Among patients with a GRACE risk score (Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events) >140, a very early invasive treatment strategy improved the primary outcome compared with the standard invasive treatment (hazard ratio, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.67–1.01; P value for interaction=0.023).

Conclusions:

A strategy of very early invasive coronary evaluation does not improve overall long-term clinical outcome compared with an invasive strategy conducted within 2 to 3 days in patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome. However, in patients with the highest risk, very early invasive therapy improves long-term outcomes.

 

 

 

Cocktail HSHC + Vitamines B1 et C en chirurgie cardiaque ?

 

http://www.ijaweb.org/article.asp?issn=0019-5049;year=2018;volume=62;issue=12;spage=934;epage=939;aulast=Balakrishnan&utm_source=newsletter_436&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=critical-care-reviews-newsletter-366

DOI: 10.4103/ija.IJA_361_18

 

 

Background and Aims: The effect of vitamin C on vasopressor requirement in critically ill patients have been evaluated previously. We aimed to evaluate the effect of vitamin C, hydrocortisone and thiamine on vasopressor requirement and mortality in post-operative adult cardiac surgical patients with septic shock. Methods: About 24 patients with septic shock were randomised into Group 1 (receiving matching placebo per day for 4 days) and Group 2 (receiving 6 g vitamin C, 400 mg thiamine and 200 mg hydrocortisone per day for 4 days). Vasopressor dose over 4 days of therapy was the primary endpoint, whereas in-hospital mortality was the secondary endpoint. Results: APACHE IV and EUROSCORE II scores were similar between both the groups. Significant reductions in the requirement of vasopressin (difference from day 1 – 0.0008 ± 0.00289 vs 0.0033 ± 0.00492 units/kg/min; P = 0.019) and noradrenaline (difference from day 1 – 0.0283 ± 0.040 vs 0.023 ± 0.035 μg/kg/min; P = 0.006) were observed with vitamin C treatment as compared to control group. PCT levels on Day 3 (68.11 ± 33.64 vs 33.2 ± 27.55 ng/mL; P = 0.0161) and Day 4 (70.03 ± 29.74 vs 26.3 ± 23.08 ng/mL; P = 0.0009) were significantly lower in treatment group as compared to control. However, there was no difference in the Sepsis-Related Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score and mortality between the studied groups. Conclusion: Combination of vitamin C, thiamine and hydrocortisone reduces vasopressor requirement in adult cardiac surgical patients with septic shock.

 

 

 

 

Greffons issus de patients à coeurs arrêtés non inférieurs à ceux en état de mort encéphalique ?

 

 

Alexander Schaapherder et al.,

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eclinm.2018.09.007

 

Abstract

Background

Despite growing waiting lists for renal transplants, hesitations persist with regard to the use of deceased after cardiac death (DCD) renal grafts. We evaluated the outcomes of DCD donations in The Netherlands, the country with the highest proportion of DCD procedures (42.9%) to test whether these hesitations are justified.

Methods

This study included all procedures with grafts donated after brain death (DBD) (n = 3611) and cardiac death (n = 2711) performed between 2000 and 2017. Transplant outcomes were compared by Kaplan Meier and Cox regression analysis, and factors associated with short (within 90 days of transplantation) and long-term graft loss evaluated in multi-variable analyses.

Findings

Despite higher incidences of early graft loss (+ 50%) and delayed graft function (+ 250%) in DCD grafts, 10-year graft and recipient survival were similar for the two graft types (Combined 10-year graft survival: 73.9% (95% CI: 72.5–75.2), combined recipient survival: 64.5% (95 CI: 63.0–66.0%)). Long-term outcome equivalence was explained by a reduced impact of delayed graft function on DCD graft survival (RR: 0.69 (95% CI: 0.55–0.87), p < 0.001). Mid and long-term graft function (eGFR), and the impact of incident delayed graft function on eGFR were similar for DBD and DCD grafts.

Interpretation

Mid and long term outcomes for DCD grafts are equivalent to DBD kidneys. Poorer short term outcomes are offset by a lesser impact of delayed graft function on DCD graft survival. This nation-wide evaluation does not justify the reluctance to use of DCD renal grafts. A strong focus on short-term outcome neglects the superior recovery potential of DCD grafts.

 

 

Remplissage vasculaire guidé par les DTC en NeuroRéanimation ?

 

FranciscoChacón-Lozsán et al., Trends in Anesthesia and Critical care

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tacc.2018.11.002

 

Background

Fluid management in the neurointensive care patient is aimed at maintaining an adequate cerebral blood flow. Recent data suggests that an adequate fluid administration may have an important role on outcome.

Materials and methods

in this preliminary study we evaluated the use of mean flow velocity normalization as a parameter to guide fluid therapy in neurointensive care patients. We recruited all patients after craniotomy surgery between September 2016 and August 2017 not septic, without cardiac pathologies or pregnancy, with ages of 42 ± 21 standard deviation (SD) and compared pulse pressure variation (PPV) and middle cerebral artery mean velocity (MCA-MV) using transcranial doppler ultrasound (TDU) to guide fluid therapy. The goal was normalization by age of MCA-MV values using fluid therapy with crystalloids, and the main outcome was mortality rate.

Results

50 patients were recruited with no significant differences in APACHE-II score and all patients had PPV>15% and low MCA-VM at admission. Hospitalization (55,1 ± 13,8 SD Vs 51,3 ± 15,1 SD) and mechanical ventilation (6,6 ± 7,8 SD vs. 5,4 ± 10,7 SD) days had no significant difference as outcome with P = 0,949 and 0,654 respectively, control patients after PPV normalization who didn’t achieve the MCA-MV goal had fatal outcome and according to that mortality was significantly high in the control group with 36% compared with 8% in TDU group with P = 0,017, MCA-MV in control patients with fatal outcome and was significantly lower than those who survived (P < 0,01).

Conclusions

MCA-MV normalization by age may be an objective tool to guide fluid therapy in neurointensive care patients, however, a larger outcome study is recommended to confirm this hypothesis.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Revue sur les statines dans le sepsis : inutiles ?

 

Barak Pertzov et al., CMI, 2018

Background

Fluid management in the neurointensive care patient is aimed at maintaining an adequate cerebral blood flow. Recent data suggests that an adequate fluid administration may have an important role on outcome.

Materials and methods

in this preliminary study we evaluated the use of mean flow velocity normalization as a parameter to guide fluid therapy in neurointensive care patients. We recruited all patients after craniotomy surgery between September 2016 and August 2017 not septic, without cardiac pathologies or pregnancy, with ages of 42 ± 21 standard deviation (SD) and compared pulse pressure variation (PPV) and middle cerebral artery mean velocity (MCA-MV) using transcranial doppler ultrasound (TDU) to guide fluid therapy. The goal was normalization by age of MCA-MV values using fluid therapy with crystalloids, and the main outcome was mortality rate.

Results

50 patients were recruited with no significant differences in APACHE-II score and all patients had PPV>15% and low MCA-VM at admission. Hospitalization (55,1 ± 13,8 SD Vs 51,3 ± 15,1 SD) and mechanical ventilation (6,6 ± 7,8 SD vs. 5,4 ± 10,7 SD) days had no significant difference as outcome with P = 0,949 and 0,654 respectively, control patients after PPV normalization who didn’t achieve the MCA-MV goal had fatal outcome and according to that mortality was significantly high in the control group with 36% compared with 8% in TDU group with P = 0,017, MCA-MV in control patients with fatal outcome and was significantly lower than those who survived (P < 0,01).

Conclusions

MCA-MV normalization by age may be an objective tool to guide fluid therapy in neurointensive care patients, however, a larger outcome study is recommended to confirm this hypothesis.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Revue sur les manoeuvres de recrutement alvéolaire dans le SDRA

 

Hanyujie Kang, et al. Journal of Critical Care, 2018

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcrc.2018.10.033

 

 

Revue sur l’Index de Résistivité rénal prédicteur d’IRA ?

 

IoannisBellos et al., Journal of Critical Care, 2018

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcrc.2018.11.001

 

 

Recommandations sur les solutés en pédiatrie

 

http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/pediatrics/142/6/e20183083.full.pdf

 

 

 

 

Share This:

Étiquettes :
© 2014 - AJAR Paris – IDF. Tous droits réservés. Wordpress & We Create Web Designs