Biblio du mois : Juillet 2016
En ce mois de fête mais malheureusement de deuil national, nous présentons tout notre support aux aides médicales et para-médicales contre l’adversité.
Voici une biblio de mois de Juillet sur des thèmes variés en passant par l’arrivée de l’ANI au bloc opératoire, la prise en charge des polytraumatisés et hémorragie intracérébrale parmi une sélection d’intéressantes méta-analyses, ainsi qu’une étude sur la prophétie auto-réalisatrice.
Body-scan immédiat versus imagerie séquentielle dans la prise en charge des traumatisés sévères
Sierink et al. Lancet, 2016
Published work suggests a survival benefit for patients with trauma who undergo total-body CT scanning during the initial trauma assessment; however, level 1 evidence is absent. We aimed to assess the effect of total-body CT scanning compared with the standard work-up on in-hospital mortality in patients with trauma.
We undertook an international, multicentre, randomised controlled trial at four hospitals in the Netherlands and one in Switzerland. Patients aged 18 years or older with trauma with compromised vital parameters, clinical suspicion of life-threatening injuries, or severe injury were randomly assigned (1:1) by ALEA randomisation to immediate total-body CT scanning or to a standard work-up with conventional imaging supplemented with selective CT scanning. Neither doctors nor patients were masked to treatment allocation. The primary endpoint was in-hospital mortality, analysed in the intention-to-treat population and in subgroups of patients with polytrauma and those with traumatic brain injury. The χ2 test was used to assess differences in mortality. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01523626.
Between April 22, 2011, and Jan 1, 2014, 5475 patients were assessed for eligibility, 1403 of whom were randomly assigned: 702 to immediate total-body CT scanning and 701 to the standard work-up. 541 patients in the immediate total-body CT scanning group and 542 in the standard work-up group were included in the primary analysis. In-hospital mortality did not differ between groups (total-body CT 86 [16%] of 541 vs standard work-up 85 [16%] of 542; p=0·92). In-hospital mortality also did not differ between groups in subgroup analyses in patients with polytrauma (total-body CT 81 [22%] of 362 vs standard work-up 82 [25%] of 331; p=0·46) and traumatic brain injury (68 [38%] of 178 vs 66 [44%] of 151; p=0·31). Three serious adverse events were reported in patients in the total-body CT group (1%), one in the standard work-up group (<1%), and one in a patient who was excluded after random allocation. All five patients died.
Diagnosing patients with an immediate total-body CT scan does not reduce in-hospital mortality compared with the standard radiological work-up. Because of the increased radiation dose, future research should focus on the selection of patients who will benefit from immediate total-body CT.
Transfusion plaquettaire dans l’AVC hémorragique spontané chez les patients sous AAP
Baharoglu et al., Lancet, 2016
Platelet transfusion after acute spontaneous primary intracerebral haemorrhage in people taking antiplatelet therapy might reduce death or dependence by reducing the extent of the haemorrhage. We aimed to investigate whether platelet transfusion with standard care, compared with standard care alone, reduced death or dependence after intracerebral haemorrhage associated with antiplatelet therapy use.
We did this multicentre, open-label, masked-endpoint, randomised trial at 60 hospitals in the Netherlands, UK, and France. We enrolled adults within 6 h of supratentorial intracerebral haemorrhage symptom onset if they had used antiplatelet therapy for at least 7 days beforehand and had a Glasgow Coma Scale score of at least 8. With use of a secure web-based system that concealed allocation and used biased coin randomisation, study collaborators randomly assigned participants (1:1; stratified by hospital and type of antiplatelet therapy) to receive either standard care or standard care with platelet transfusion within 90 min of diagnostic brain imaging. Participants and local investigators giving interventions were not masked to treatment allocation, but allocation was concealed from outcome assessors and investigators analysing data. The primary outcome was shift towards death or dependence rated on the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) at 3 months, and analysed by ordinal logistic regression, adjusted for stratification variables and the Intracerebral Haemorrhage Score. The primary analysis was done in the intention-to-treat population and safety analyses were done in the intention-to-treat and as-treated populations. This trial is registered with the Netherlands Trial Register, number NTR1303, and is now closed.
Between Feb 4, 2009, and Oct 8, 2015, 41 sites enrolled 190 participants. 97 participants were randomly assigned to platelet transfusion and 93 to standard care. The odds of death or dependence at 3 months were higher in the platelet transfusion group than in the standard care group (adjusted common odds ratio 2·05, 95% CI 1·18–3·56; p=0·0114). 40 (42%) participants who received platelet transfusion had a serious adverse event during their hospital stay, as did 28 (29%) who received standard care. 23 (24%) participants assigned to platelet transfusion and 16 (17%) assigned to standard care died during hospital stay.
Platelet transfusion seems inferior to standard care for people taking antiplatelet therapy before intracerebral haemorrhage. Platelet transfusion cannot be recommended for this indication in clinical practice.
Analyse coût-efficacité des HEA versus cristalloïdes
Taylor et al. Lancet, 2016
Hydroxyethyl starch for fluid resuscitation in critically ill patients is not associated with improved short-term patient-centred outcomes compared with crystalloid fluid solutions. However, its effect on longer term health economic outcomes has not been reported.
We did a prespecified cost-effectiveness analysis of a cohort of patients from New South Wales enrolled in the Crystalloid versus Hydroxyethyl Starch Trial (CHEST), who were randomised to treatment with either 6% hydroxyethyl starch with a molecular weight of 130 kD and a molar substitution ratio of 0·4 or 0·9% sodium chloride (saline) for fluid resuscitation. Clinical outcomes were mortality and life-years gained at 6 months and 24 months, health-related quality of life at 6 months, and quality-adjusted life-years gained at 6 months. Health economic outcomes were hospital and intensive-care unit (ICU) resource use and costs at 24 months and cost-effectiveness, which we defined as the probability of reaching a willingness-to-pay threshold of less than A$50 000 per quality-adjusted life-year gained at 6 months and $100 000 per life-year gained at 24 months. CHEST is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00935168.
3537 (51%) of 7000 patients were enrolled into CHEST from New South Wales, of whom 3450 (98%) were included in our cost-effectiveness analysis. Mortality at both 6 months and 24 months did not differ between the hydroxyethyl starch and saline groups (6 months: 397/1684 [24%] vs 382/1706 [22%]; relative risk [RR] 1·05, 95% CI 0·93–1·19; p=0·41; 24 months: 586/1687 [35%] vs 594/1708 [35%]; RR 1·00, 95% CI 0·91–1·10; p=0·89). The mean number of life-years gained at 6 months and 24 months was similar between the hydroxyethyl starch and saline groups (6 months: 0·41 days [SD 0·18] vs 0·41 days [0·17]; p=0·25; 24 months: 1·46 years [SD 0·80] vs 1·47 years [0·79]; p=0·72). At 6 months, the mean health-related quality of life score was 0·67 (SD 0·34) with hydroxyethyl starch versus 0·69 (0·35) with saline (p=0·33). The mean number of quality-adjusted life-years gained did not differ between the hydroxyethyl starch and saline groups at 6 months (0·26 days [SD 0·18] vs 0·26 days [0·18]; p=0·33). Total hospital costs (including ICU costs) at 24 months were similar between the hydroxyethyl starch and saline groups (A$62 196 [55 935] vs $62 617 [56 452]; p=0·83). The probability that hydroxyethyl starch was cost effective was 11% at 6 months and 29% at 24 months.
Although longer term clinical outcomes did not differ between patients resuscitated with hydroxyethyl starch or saline in the ICU, from a health-care payer’s perspective, the probability that hydroxyethyl starch is cost effective in these patients is low.
Retour de la VNI dans la gestion du SDRA ?
Patel et al., JAMA, 2016
Noninvasive ventilation (NIV) with a face mask is relatively ineffective at preventing endotracheal intubation in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Delivery of NIV with a helmet may be a superior strategy for these patients.
To determine whether NIV delivered by helmet improves intubation rate among patients with ARDS.
Design, Setting, and Participants
Single-center randomized clinical trial of 83 patients with ARDS requiring NIV delivered by face mask for at least 8 hours while in the medical intensive care unit at the University of Chicago between October 3, 2012, through September 21, 2015.
Patients were randomly assigned to continue face mask NIV or switch to a helmet for NIV support for a planned enrollment of 206 patients (103 patients per group). The helmet is a transparent hood that covers the entire head of the patient and has a rubber collar neck seal. Early trial termination resulted in 44 patients randomized to the helmet group and 39 to the face mask group.
Main Outcomes and Measures
The primary outcome was the proportion of patients who required endotracheal intubation. Secondary outcomes included 28-day invasive ventilator–free days (ie, days alive without mechanical ventilation), duration of ICU and hospital length of stay, and hospital and 90-day mortality.
Eighty-three patients (45% women; median age, 59 years; median Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation [APACHE] II score, 26) were included in the analysis after the trial was stopped early based on predefined criteria for efficacy. The intubation rate was 61.5% (n = 24) for the face mask group and 18.2% (n = 8) for the helmet group (absolute difference, −43.3%; 95% CI, −62.4% to −24.3%; P < .001). The number of ventilator-free days was significantly higher in the helmet group (28 vs 12.5, P < .001). At 90 days, 15 patients (34.1%) in the helmet group died compared with 22 patients (56.4%) in the face mask group (absolute difference, −22.3%; 95% CI, −43.3 to −1.4; P = .02). Adverse events included 3 interface-related skin ulcers for each group (ie, 7.6% in the face mask group had nose ulcers and 6.8% in the helmet group had neck ulcers).
Conclusions and Relevance
Among patients with ARDS, treatment with helmet NIV resulted in a significant reduction of intubation rates. There was also a statistically significant reduction in 90-day mortality with helmet NIV. Multicenter studies are needed to replicate these findings.
Transports secondaires par paramédicaux versus médicaux
Van Lieshout et al., ICM, 2016
Regionalization and concentration of critical care increases the need for interhospital transport. However, optimal staffing of ground critical care transport has not been evaluated.
In this prospective, randomized, open-label, blinded-endpoint non-inferiority trial, critically ill patients on mechanical ventilation transported by interhospital ground critical care transport were randomized between transport staffed by a dedicated team comprising a critical care nurse and paramedic (nurses group) or a dedicated team including a critical care physician (nurses + physician group). The primary outcome was the number of patients with critical events, both clinical and technical, during transport. Clinical events included decrease in blood pressure, oxygen saturation, or temperature, blood loss, new cardiac arrhythmias, or death. Non-inferiority was assumed if the upper limit of the two-sided 90 % confidence interval (CI) for the between-group difference lies below the non-inferiority margin of 3 %.
Of 618 eligible transported critically ill patients, 298 could be analyzed after randomization and allocation to the nurses group (n = 147) or nurses + physician group (n = 151). The percentages of patients with critical events were 16.3 % (24 incidents in 147 transports) in the nurses group and 15.2 % (23 incidents in 151 transports) in the nurses + physician group (difference 1.1 %, two-sided 90 % CI [−5.9 to 8.1]). Critical events occurred in both groups at a higher than the expected (0–1 %) rate. In the nurses group consultations for physician assistance were requested in 8.2 % (12 in 147 transports), all of which were performed prior to transport.
The number of patients with critical events did not markedly differ between critical care transports staffed by a critical care nurse and paramedic compared to a team including a critical care physician. However, as a result of an unexpected higher rate of critical events in both groups recorded by an electronic health record, non-inferiority of nurse-led interhospital critical transport could not be established
Les probiotiques en prévention des PAVM ?
Zeng et al., ICM, 2016
To evaluate the potential preventive effect of probiotics on ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP).
This was an open-label, randomized, controlled multicenter trial involving 235 critically ill adult patients who were expected to receive mechanical ventilation for ≥48 h. The patients were randomized to receive (1) a probiotics capsule containing live Bacillus subtilis andEnterococcus faecalis (Medilac-S) 0.5 g three times daily through a nasogastric feeding tube plus standard preventive strategies or (2) standard preventive strategies alone, for a maximum of 14 days. The development of VAP was evaluated daily, and throat swabs and gastric aspirate were cultured at baseline and once or twice weekly thereafter.
The incidence of microbiologically confirmed VAP in the probiotics group was significantly lower than that in the control patients (36.4 vs. 50.4 %, respectively; P = 0.031). The mean time to develop VAP was significantly longer in the probiotics group than in the control group (10.4 vs. 7.5 days, respectively; P = 0.022). The proportion of patients with acquisition of gastric colonization of potentially pathogenic microorganisms (PPMOs) was lower in the probiotics group (24 %) than the control group (44 %) (P = 0.004). However, the proportion of patients with eradication PPMO colonization on both sites of the oropharynx and stomach were not significantly different between the two groups. The administration of probiotics did not result in any improvement in the incidence of clinically suspected VAP, antimicrobial consumption, duration of mechanical ventilation, mortality and length of hospital stay.
Therapy with the probiotic bacteria B. Subtilis and E. faecalis are an effective and safe means for preventing VAP and the acquisition of PPMO colonization in the stomach.
ETT versus Thermodilution : techniques non-interchangeables ?
Wetterslev, et al., ICM, 2016
Echocardiography is frequently used in the hemodynamic evaluation of critically ill patients, but inaccurate measurements may lead to wrong clinical decisions. The aim of our systematic review was to investigate the interchangeability of echocardiography with thermodilution technique in measuring cardiac output and its changes.
In August 2015 we systematically searched electronic databases and included studies investigating the echocardiographic measurement of cardiac output compared with thermodilution technique using the Bland–Altman method. Two authors independently reviewed the studies and extracted data on type of measurements, clinical setting and characteristics, and those of the Bland–Altman and trending ability analyses.
We identified 13,834 citations and included 24 studies in the final analysis. The median number of participants was 32 (range 8–65). Most of the studies assessed left-sided heart structures and the majority had small bias, wide limits of agreement, and high percentage error between echocardiography and thermodilution. In only two of the 24 studies the precision of each technique (echocardiography and thermodilution) was assessed before comparing them. In the single study evaluating trending ability using valid methodology, agreement was observed between echocardiography and thermodilution in detecting the directional changes in cardiac output, but the magnitude of changes varied considerably.
The majority of studies comparing echocardiography with thermodilution were difficult to interpret, but current evidence does not support interchangeability between these techniques in measuring cardiac output. The techniques may be interchangeable in tracking directional changes in cardiac output, but this has to be confirmed in large high-quality studies.
Validation de l’ANI en per-opératoire ?
Edry et al., Anesthesiology, 2016
The nociception level (NoL) index is an index of nociception based on nonlinear combination of heart rate, heart rate variability, photoplethysmograph wave amplitude, skin conductance, skin conductance fluctuations, and their time derivatives. The authors evaluated the abilities of the NoL index and other measures of nociception to discriminate between noxious and nonnoxious stimuli, to progressively respond to graded stimuli, and to respond to opioid administration.
Intraoperative NoL was compared to heart rate, pulse plethysmograph amplitude, noninvasive blood pressure, and the surgical pleth index around five specific stimuli: tetanic stimulation with and without fentanyl analgesia, intubation, first incision/trocar insertion, and a nonnoxious period. The response around first incision was analyzed at two target plasma concentrations of remifentanil.
In 58 patients, the NoL index responded progressively to increased stimulus intensity and remained unchanged in response to nonnoxious stimuli. Compared to other accepted measures of nociception, the NoL index better discriminated noxious from nonnoxious stimuli with an area under the curve of 0.93 (95% CI, 0.89 to 0.97) and a sensitivity of 87% at a specificity of 84%. The NoL index was the only measure that reliably reflected two different analgesic concentrations of remifentanil during initial skin incision or trocar insertion.
The NoL index changes proportionately with patients’ response to various clinical and experimental noxious stimuli and discriminates noxious from nonnoxious stimuli with high sensitivity and specificity. The NoL index also responds progressively to increasing stimuli intensity and is appropriately blunted by analgesic administration. The NoL index was superior to other compared measures and appears to accurately characterize nociception during general anesthesia.
Méta-analyse sur les anesthésiques volatiles : bénéfique en chirurgie cardiaque ?
Uhlig et al., Anesthesiology, 2016
Méta-analyse sur la dysfonction cardiaque diastolique en péri-opératoire : FDR CV indépendant ?
Fayad et al., Anesthesiology, 2016
Méta-analyse sur transfusion libérale versus restrictive : toujours NS ?
Hovaguimian et al., Anesthesiology, 2016
Etude de la prophétie auto-réalisatrice dans l’hémorragie intra-cranienne
Weimer et al., CCM, 2016
Withdrawal of life-sustaining therapy may lead to premature limitations of life-saving treatments among patients with intracranial hemorrhage, representing a self-fulfilling prophecy. We aimed to determine whether our algorithm for the withdrawal of life-sustaining therapy decision would accurately identify patients with a high probability of poor outcome, despite aggressive treatment.
Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data.
Intraparenchymal, subdural, and subarachnoid hemorrhage patients.
Baseline demographics, clinical status, and hospital course were assessed to determine the predictors of in-hospital mortality and 12-month death/severe disability among patients receiving maximal therapy. Multivariable logistic regression models developed on maximal therapy patients were applied to patients who underwent withdrawal of life-sustaining therapy to predict their probable outcome had they continued maximal treatment. A validation cohort of propensity score–matched patients was identified from the maximal therapy cohort, and their predicted and actual outcomes compared.
Measurements and Main Results
Of 383 patients enrolled, there were 128 subarachnoid hemorrhage (33.4%), 134 subdural hematoma (35.0%), and 121 intraparenchymal hemorrhage (31.6%). Twenty-six patients (6.8%) underwent withdrawal of life-sustaining therapy and died, 41 (10.7%) continued maximal therapy and died in hospital, and 316 (82.5%) continued maximal therapy and survived to discharge. The median predicted probability of in-hospital death among withdrawal of life-sustaining therapy patients was 35% had they continued maximal therapy, whereas the median predicted probability of 12-month death/severe disability was 98%. In the propensity-matched validation cohort, 16 of 20 patients had greater than or equal to 80% predicted probability of death/severe disability at 12 months, matching the observed outcomes and supporting the strength and validity of our prediction models.
The withdrawal of life-sustaining therapy decision may contribute to premature in-hospital death in some patients who may otherwise have been expected to survive to discharge. However, based on probability models, nearly all of the patients who underwent withdrawal of life-sustaining therapy would have died or remained severely disabled at 12 months had maximal therapy been continued. Withdrawal of life-sustaining therapy may not represent a self-fulfilling prophecy.
Hyperglycémie à l’admission pour sepsis : mauvais pronostic ?
Van vught et al., CCM, 2016
To investigate whether admission hyperglycemia is associated with the presentation and/or outcome of sepsis, what the influence of hyperglycemia is on key host responses to sepsis, and whether hyperglycemia differentially affects patients with diabetes mellitus.
Design and Setting
A substudy of a prospective observational cohort study was conducted in the intensive care of two tertiary hospitals between January 2011 and July 2013.
Of all consecutive critically ill sepsis patients, admission glucose was used to stratify patients in euglycemia (71–140 mg/dL), mild hyperglycemia (141–199 mg/dL), and severe hyperglycemia (≥ 200 mg/dL), and patients with hypoglycemia were excluded. Fifteen plasma biomarkers providing insight in key host responses implicated in sepsis pathogenesis were measured on admission.
Measurements and Main Results
Of 987 sepsis patients with admission glucose levels greater than 70 mg/dL, 519 (52.6%) had normal glucose levels, 267 (27.1%) had mild, and 201 (20.4%) severe hyperglycemia. Admission hyperglycemia was accompanied by mitigated alterations in plasma host response biomarker levels indicative of activation of the cytokine network, the vascular endothelium, and the coagulation system in patients without a history of diabetes. Severe, but not mild, admission hyperglycemia was associated with increased 30-day mortality (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.66 [95% CI, 1.24–2.23]), in both patients without diabetes (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.65 [95% CI, 1.12–2.42]) and with diabetes (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.91 [95% CI, 1.01–3.62]).
Admission hyperglycemia is associated with adverse outcome of sepsis irrespective of the presence or absence of preexisting diabetes by a mechanism unrelated to exaggerated inflammation or coagulation.
Etude sur l’Outcome à long terme des patients ayant un cancer en réanimation
Normilio-Silva et al., CCM, 2016
To assess the long-term survival, health-related quality of life, and quality-adjusted life years of cancer patients admitted to ICUs.
Two cancer specialized ICUs in Brazil.
A total of 792 participants.
Measurements and Main Results
The health-related quality of life before ICU admission; at 15 days; and at 3, 6, 12, and 18 months was assessed with the EQ-5D-3L. In addition, the vital status was assessed at 24 months. The mean age of the subjects was 61.6 ± 14.3 years, 42.5% were female subjects and half were admitted after elective surgery. The mean Simplified Acute Physiology Score 3 was 47.4 ± 15.6. Survival at 12 and 18 months was 42.4% and 38.1%, respectively. The mean EQ-5D-3L utility measure before admission to the ICU was 0.47 ± 0.43, at 15 days it was 0.41 ± 0.44, at 90 days 0.56 ± 0.42, at 6 months 0.60 ± 0.41, at 12 months 0.67 ± 0.35, and at 18 months 0.67 ± 0.35. The probabilities for attaining 12 and 18 months of quality-adjusted survival were 30.1% and 19.1%, respectively. There were statistically significant differences in survival time and quality-adjusted life years according to all assessed baseline characteristics (ICU admission after elective surgery, emergency surgery, or medical admission; Simplified Acute Physiology Score 3; cancer extension; cancer status; previous surgery; previous chemotherapy; previous radiotherapy; performance status; and previous health-related quality of life). Only the previous health-related quality of life and performance status were associated with the health-related quality of life during the 18-month follow-up.
Long-term survival, health-related quality of life, and quality-adjusted life year expectancy of cancer patients admitted to the ICU are limited. Nevertheless, these clinical outcomes exhibit wide variability among patients and are associated with simple characteristics present at the time of ICU admission, which may help healthcare professionals estimate patients’ prognoses.
Epidémiologie du SDRA post-Greffe de moelle
Yadav et al., CCM, 2016
Pulmonary complications are common following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Numerous idiopathic post-transplantation pulmonary syndromes have been described. Patients at the severe end of this spectrum may present with hypoxemic respiratory failure and pulmonary infiltrates, meeting criteria for acute respiratory distress syndrome. The incidence and outcomes of acute respiratory distress syndrome in this setting are poorly characterized.
Retrospective cohort study.
Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN.
Patients undergoing autologous and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation between January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2012.
Measurements and Main Results
Patients were screened for acute respiratory distress syndrome development within 1 year of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Acute respiratory distress syndrome adjudication was performed in accordance with the 2012 Berlin criteria. In total, 133 cases of acute respiratory distress syndrome developed in 2,635 patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (5.0%). Acute respiratory distress syndrome developed in 75 patients (15.6%) undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and 58 patients (2.7%) undergoing autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Median time to acute respiratory distress syndrome development was 55.4 days (interquartile range, 15.1–139 d) in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and 14.2 days (interquartile range, 10.5–124 d) in autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Twenty-eight-day mortality was 46.6%. At 12 months following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, 89 patients (66.9%) who developed acute respiratory distress syndrome had died. Only 7 of 133 acute respiratory distress syndrome cases met criteria for engraftment syndrome and 15 for diffuse alveolar hemorrhage.
Acute respiratory distress syndrome is a frequent complication following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, dramatically influencing patient-important outcomes. Most cases of acute respiratory distress syndrome following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation do not meet criteria for a more specific post-transplantation pulmonary syndrome. These findings highlight the need to better understand the risk factors underlying acute respiratory distress syndrome in this population, thereby facilitating the development of effective prevention strategies.
Ventilation mécanique & Atrophie diaphragmatique
Zambon et al., CCM, 2016
Mechanical ventilation contributes to diaphragmatic atrophy and dysfunction, and few techniques exist to assess diaphragmatic function: the purpose of this study was to quantify diaphragm atrophy in a population of critically ill mechanically ventilated patients with ultrasound and to identify risk factors that can worsen diaphragmatic activity.
Prospective observational study.
ICU of a 1,200-bed university hospital.
Newly intubated adult critically ill patients.
Diaphragm thickness in the zone of apposition was measured daily with ultrasound, from the first day of mechanical ventilation till discharge to the main ward.
Measurements and Main Results
Daily atrophy rate (ΔTdi/d) was calculated as the reduction in percentage from the previous measurement. To analyze the difference in atrophy rate (ΔTdi/d), ventilation was categorized into four classes: spontaneous breathing or continuous positive airway pressure; pressure support ventilation 5–12 cm H2O (low pressure support ventilation); pressure support ventilation greater than 12 cm H2O (high pressure support ventilation); and controlled mechanical ventilation. Multivariate analysis with ventilation support and other clinical variables was performed to identify risk factors for atrophy. Forty patients underwent a total of 153 ultrasonographic evaluations. Mean (SD) ΔTdi/d was –7.5% (12.3) during controlled mechanical ventilation, –5.3% (12.9) at high pressure support ventilation, –1.5% (10.9) at low pressure support ventilation, +2.3% (9.5) during spontaneous breathing or continuous positive airway pressure. At multivariate analysis, only the ventilation support was predictive of diaphragm atrophy rate. Pressure support predicted diaphragm thickness with coefficient –0.006 (95% CI, –0.010 to –0.002; p = 0.006).
In critically ill mechanically ventilated patients, there is a linear relationship between ventilator support and diaphragmatic atrophy rate.
Intérêt de la Dexmedetomidine dans le delirium chez les patients non-intubés ?
Carrasco et al., CCM, 2016
To evaluate the clinical effectiveness, safety, and cost of dexmedetomidine for the treatment of agitated delirium refractory to haloperidol in nonintubated critically ill patients.
Nonrandomized, controlled trial.
Intensive care department of a tertiary care nonprofit hospital.
All consecutive admissions to a medical-surgical ICU with a diagnosis of agitated delirium.
Initial haloperidol titration: all patients received IV bolus doses of haloperidol until agitation was controlled (Richmond Agitation Sedation Scale scoring range, 0 to −2) or reaching the maximum daily dose. Group comparison: patient responders to haloperidol (control group) were compared with nonresponders (dexmedetomidine group).
Measurements and Main Results
A total of 132 nonintubated patients were treated with haloperidol in the initial haloperidol titration phase. Forty-six patients (34.8%; 95% CI, 26.0–43.1%) did not respond to haloperidol, and 86 patients (65.2%; 95% CI, 56.3–73.0%) were responders. During the group comparison phase, dexmedetomidine achieved a higher percentage of time in satisfactory sedation levels than did haloperidol (92.7% [95% CI, 84.5–99.8%] vs 59.3% [95% CI, 48.6–69.3%], respectively; p = 0.0001). Haloperidol was associated with 10 cases (11.6% [95% CI, 6.5–21.2%]) of oversedation and two (2.0% [0.4–8%]) of corrected QT lengthening. Direct cost of dexmedetomidine was 17 times greater than haloperidol, but it achieved a mean savings of $4,370 per patient due to the reduction in length of ICU stay.
In the study conditions, dexmedetomidine shows to be useful as a rescue drug for treating agitation due to delirium in nonintubated patients in whom haloperidol has failed, and it seems to have a better effectiveness, safety, and cost-benefit profile than does haloperidol.