Biblio du mois : Février 2019
Il y a bien bien longtemps… dans un monde medical très très lointain …
Non ce n’est pas le retour du jedi mais peut-être bien le retour des colloïdes avec une étude montrant leur bénéfice versus critalloïdes en chirurgie abdominale.
Au programme de cette riche biblio, une pratique facile à faire pour évaluer un risque intubation difficile mais aussi de belles études sur l’apport de la clinique entre le TRC versus mesure de lactate et d’autres !
Du programme de réduction personnalisée de l’inconfort : Enfin une étude efficace sur le stress post-traumatique… Il était temps de dire écoutez et occupez-vous de vos patients…
Enfin la publication de l’étude française STERNOCAT…
De l’évaluation économique de l’ECMO V-V avec sa revue, de l’intubation, e la ventilation, de l’analgésie multimodale avec le sniff de Kéta et peut-être bien la fin de la thromboprophylaxie multimodale (après les bas de contention, la compression intermittente) mais une autre étude qui irait plutôt dans le sens : les HBPM inutiles ?
Bref, de quoi vous gaver en plein milieu de semestre 😉
Tout est dans la Biblio de L’AJAR Paris !
Pré-oxygénation à l’Ambu : safe et mieux ?
Casey et al., NEJM, 2019
Hypoxemia is the most common complication during tracheal intubation of critically ill adults and may increase the risk of cardiac arrest and death. Whether positive-pressure ventilation with a bag-mask device (bag-mask ventilation) during tracheal intubation of critically ill adults prevents hypoxemia without increasing the risk of aspiration remains controversial.
In a multicenter, randomized trial conducted in seven intensive care units in the United States, we randomly assigned adults undergoing tracheal intubation to receive either ventilation with a bag-mask device or no ventilation between induction and laryngoscopy. The primary outcome was the lowest oxygen saturation observed during the interval between induction and 2 minutes after tracheal intubation. The secondary outcome was the incidence of severe hypoxemia, defined as an oxygen saturation of less than 80%.
Among the 401 patients enrolled, the median lowest oxygen saturation was 96% (interquartile range, 87 to 99) in the bag-mask ventilation group and 93% (interquartile range, 81 to 99) in the no-ventilation group (P=0.01). A total of 21 patients (10.9%) in the bag-mask ventilation group had severe hypoxemia, as compared with 45 patients (22.8%) in the no-ventilation group (relative risk, 0.48; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.30 to 0.77). Operator-reported aspiration occurred during 2.5% of intubations in the bag-mask ventilation group and during 4.0% in the no-ventilation group (P=0.41). The incidence of new opacity on chest radiography in the 48 hours after tracheal intubation was 16.4% and 14.8%, respectively (P=0.73).
Among critically ill adults undergoing tracheal intubation, patients receiving bag-mask ventilation had higher oxygen saturations and a lower incidence of severe hypoxemia than those receiving no ventilation.
Fin de la thromboprophylaxie multimodale ?
Arabi et al.,NEJM, 2019
Whether adjunctive intermittent pneumatic compression in critically ill patients receiving pharmacologic thromboprophylaxis would result in a lower incidence of deep-vein thrombosis than pharmacologic thromboprophylaxis alone is uncertain.
We randomly assigned patients who were considered adults according to the local standards at the participating sites (≥14, ≥16, or ≥18 years of age) within 48 hours after admission to an intensive care unit (ICU) to receive either intermittent pneumatic compression for at least 18 hours each day in addition to pharmacologic thromboprophylaxis with unfractionated or low-molecular-weight heparin (pneumatic compression group) or pharmacologic thromboprophylaxis alone (control group). The primary outcome was incident (i.e., new) proximal lower-limb deep-vein thrombosis, as detected on twice-weekly lower-limb ultrasonography after the third calendar day since randomization until ICU discharge, death, attainment of full mobility, or trial day 28, whichever occurred first.
A total of 2003 patients underwent randomization — 991 were assigned to the pneumatic compression group and 1012 to the control group. Intermittent pneumatic compression was applied for a median of 22 hours (interquartile range, 21 to 23) daily for a median of 7 days (interquartile range, 4 to 13). The primary outcome occurred in 37 of 957 patients (3.9%) in the pneumatic compression group and in 41 of 985 patients (4.2%) in the control group (relative risk, 0.93; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.60 to 1.44; P=0.74). Venous thromboembolism (pulmonary embolism or any lower-limb deep-vein thrombosis) occurred in 103 of 991 patients (10.4%) in the pneumatic compression group and in 95 of 1012 patients (9.4%) in the control group (relative risk, 1.11; 95% CI, 0.85 to 1.44), and death from any cause at 90 days occurred in 258 of 990 patients (26.1%) and 270 of 1011 patients (26.7%), respectively (relative risk, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.84 to 1.13).
Among critically ill patients who were receiving pharmacologic thromboprophylaxis, adjunctive intermittent pneumatic compression did not result in a significantly lower incidence of proximal lower-limb deep-vein thrombosis than pharmacologic thromboprophylaxis alone.
Etude pour le « Go » pour l’Andexanet Alpha ?
Connolly et al., NEJM, 2019
Andexanet alfa is a modified recombinant inactive form of human factor Xa developed for reversal of factor Xa inhibitors.
We evaluated 352 patients who had acute major bleeding within 18 hours after administration of a factor Xa inhibitor. The patients received a bolus of andexanet, followed by a 2-hour infusion. The coprimary outcomes were the percent change in anti–factor Xa activity after andexanet treatment and the percentage of patients with excellent or good hemostatic efficacy at 12 hours after the end of the infusion, with hemostatic efficacy adjudicated on the basis of prespecified criteria. Efficacy was assessed in the subgroup of patients with confirmed major bleeding and baseline anti–factor Xa activity of at least 75 ng per milliliter (or ≥0.25 IU per milliliter for those receiving enoxaparin).
Patients had a mean age of 77 years, and most had substantial cardiovascular disease. Bleeding was predominantly intracranial (in 227 patients [64%]) or gastrointestinal (in 90 patients [26%]). In patients who had received apixaban, the median anti–factor Xa activity decreased from 149.7 ng per milliliter at baseline to 11.1 ng per milliliter after the andexanet bolus (92% reduction; 95% confidence interval [CI], 91 to 93); in patients who had received rivaroxaban, the median value decreased from 211.8 ng per milliliter to 14.2 ng per milliliter (92% reduction; 95% CI, 88 to 94). Excellent or good hemostasis occurred in 204 of 249 patients (82%) who could be evaluated. Within 30 days, death occurred in 49 patients (14%) and a thrombotic event in 34 (10%). Reduction in anti–factor Xa activity was not predictive of hemostatic efficacy overall but was modestly predictive in patients with intracranial hemorrhage.
In patients with acute major bleeding associated with the use of a factor Xa inhibitor, treatment with andexanet markedly reduced anti–factor Xa activity, and 82% of patients had excellent or good hemostatic efficacy at 12 hours, as adjudicated according to prespecified criteria.
Revue sur les Pneumonies d’inhalation
Lionel A. Mandell, M.D., and Michael S. Niederman, M.D.
N Engl J Med 2019; 380:651-663
Revue sur les traumatisés sévères et leur prise en charge
David R. King, M.D.
Revue sur l’intubation difficile et sa prédiction :
Ne pas arriver à mordiller sa lèvre supérieure associé à un risque d’intubation difficile ?
Objectif biologique versus clinique : Lactate versus Temps de recoloration cutané ?
Importance Abnormal peripheral perfusion after septic shock resuscitation has been associated with organ dysfunction and mortality. The potential role of the clinical assessment of peripheral perfusion as a target during resuscitation in early septic shock has not been established.
Objective To determine if a peripheral perfusion–targeted resuscitation during early septic shock in adults is more effective than a lactate level–targeted resuscitation for reducing mortality.
Design, Setting, and Participants Multicenter, randomized trial conducted at 28 intensive care units in 5 countries. Four-hundred twenty-four patients with septic shock were included between March 2017 and March 2018. The last date of follow-up was June 12, 2018.
Interventions Patients were randomized to a step-by-step resuscitation protocol aimed at either normalizing capillary refill time (n = 212) or normalizing or decreasing lactate levels at rates greater than 20% per 2 hours (n = 212), during an 8-hour intervention period.
Main Outcomes and Measures The primary outcome was all-cause mortality at 28 days. Secondary outcomes were organ dysfunction at 72 hours after randomization, as assessed by Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score (range, 0 [best] to 24 [worst]); death within 90 days; mechanical ventilation–, renal replacement therapy–, and vasopressor-free days within 28 days; intensive care unit and hospital length of stay.
Results Among 424 patients randomized (mean age, 63 years; 226 [53%] women), 416 (98%) completed the trial. By day 28, 74 patients (34.9%) in the peripheral perfusion group and 92 patients (43.4%) in the lactate group had died (hazard ratio, 0.75 [95% CI, 0.55 to 1.02]; P = .06; risk difference, −8.5% [95% CI, −18.2% to 1.2%]). Peripheral perfusion–targeted resuscitation was associated with less organ dysfunction at 72 hours (mean SOFA score, 5.6 [SD, 4.3] vs 6.6 [SD, 4.7]; mean difference, −1.00 [95% CI, −1.97 to −0.02]; P = .045). There were no significant differences in the other 6 secondary outcomes. No protocol-related serious adverse reactions were confirmed.
Conclusions and Relevance Among patients with septic shock, a resuscitation strategy targeting normalization of capillary refill time, compared with a strategy targeting serum lactate levels, did not reduce all-cause 28-day mortality.
Effet de la kétamine intra-nasale chez l’enfant
Frey at ., JAMA Pediatr. 2019 Feb 1;173(2):140-146. doi: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2018.4582
Importance Timely analgesia is critical for children with injuries presenting to the emergency department, yet pain control efforts are often inadequate. Intranasal administration of pain medications provides rapid analgesia with minimal discomfort. Opioids are historically used for significant pain from traumatic injuries but have concerning adverse effects. Intranasal ketamine may provide an effective alternative.
Objective To determine whether intranasal ketamine is noninferior to intranasal fentanyl for pain reduction in children presenting with acute extremity injuries.
Design, Setting, and Participants The Pain Reduction With Intranasal Medications for Extremity Injuries (PRIME) trial was a double-blind, randomized, active-control, noninferiority trial in a pediatric, tertiary, level 1 trauma center. Participants were children aged 8 to 17 years presenting to the emergency department with moderate to severe pain due to traumatic limb injuries between March 2016 and February 2017. Analyses were intention to treat and began in May 2017.
Interventions Intranasal ketamine (1.5 mg/kg) or intranasal fentanyl (2 µg/kg).
Main Outcomes and Measures The primary outcome was reduction in visual analog scale pain score 30 minutes after intervention. The noninferiority margin for this outcome was 10.
Results Of 90 children enrolled, 45 (50%) were allocated to ketamine (mean [SD] age, 11.8 [2.6] years; 26 boys [59%]) and 45 (50%) to fentanyl (mean [SD] age, 12.2 [2.3] years; 31 boys [74%]). Thirty minutes after medication, the mean visual analog scale reduction was 30.6 mm (95% CI, 25.4-35.8) for ketamine and 31.9 mm (95% CI, 26.6-37.2) for fentanyl. Ketamine was noninferior to fentanyl for pain reduction based on a 1-sided test of group difference less than the noninferiority margin, as the CIs crossed 0 but did not cross the prespecified noninferiority margin (difference in mean pain reduction between groups, 1.3; 90% CI, −6.2 to 8.7). The risk of adverse events was higher in the ketamine group (relative risk, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.5-4.0), but all events were minor and transient. Rescue analgesia was similar between groups (relative risk, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.5-1.6).
Conclusions and Relevance Ketamine provides effective analgesia that is noninferior to fentanyl, although participants who received ketamine had an increase in adverse events that were minor and transient. Intranasal ketamine may be an appropriate alternative to intranasal fentanyl for pain associated with acute extremity injuries. Ketamine should be considered for pediatric pain management in the emergency setting, especially when opioids are associated with increased risk.
Paracétamol systématique post-opératoire de chirurgie cardiaque contre le Delirium chez les >60ans
Importance Postoperative delirium is common following cardiac surgery and may be affected by choice of analgesic and sedative.
Objective To evaluate the effect of postoperative intravenous (IV) acetaminophen (paracetamol) vs placebo combined with IV propofol vs dexmedetomidine on postoperative delirium among older patients undergoing cardiac surgery.
Design, Setting, and Participants Randomized, placebo-controlled, factorial clinical trial among 120 patients aged 60 years or older undergoing on-pump coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery or combined CABG/valve surgeries at a US center. Enrollment was September 2015 to April 2018, with follow-up ending in April 2019.
Interventions Patients were randomized to 1 of 4 groups receiving postoperative analgesia with IV acetaminophen or placebo every 6 hours for 48 hours and postoperative sedation with dexmedetomidine or propofol starting at chest closure and continued for up to 6 hours (acetaminophen and dexmedetomidine: n = 29; placebo and dexmedetomidine: n = 30; acetaminophen and propofol: n = 31; placebo and propofol: n = 30).
Main Outcomes and Measures The primary outcome was incidence of postoperative in-hospital delirium by the Confusion Assessment Method. Secondary outcomes included delirium duration, cognitive decline, breakthrough analgesia within the first 48 hours, and ICU and hospital length of stay.
Results Among 121 patients randomized (median age, 69 years; 19 women [15.8%]), 120 completed the trial. Patients treated with IV acetaminophen had a significant reduction in delirium (10% vs 28% placebo; difference, −18% [95% CI, −32% to −5%]; P = .01; HR, 2.8 [95% CI, 1.1-7.8]). Patients receiving dexmedetomidine vs propofol had no significant difference in delirium (17% vs 21%; difference, −4% [95% CI, −18% to 10%]; P = .54; HR, 0.8 [95% CI, 0.4-1.9]). There were significant differences favoring acetaminophen vs placebo for 3 prespecified secondary outcomes: delirium duration (median, 1 vs 2 days; difference, −1 [95% CI, −2 to 0]), ICU length of stay (median, 29.5 vs 46.7 hours; difference, −16.7 [95% CI, −20.3 to −0.8]), and breakthrough analgesia (median, 322.5 vs 405.3 µg morphine equivalents; difference, −83 [95% CI, −154 to −14]). For dexmedetomidine vs propofol, only breakthrough analgesia was significantly different (median, 328.8 vs 397.5 µg; difference, −69 [95% CI, −155 to −4]; P = .04). Fourteen patients in both the placebo-dexmedetomidine and acetaminophen-propofol groups (46% and 45%) and 7 in the acetaminophen-dexmedetomidine and placebo-propofol groups (24% and 23%) had hypotension.
Conclusions and Relevance Among older patients undergoing cardiac surgery, postoperative scheduled IV acetaminophen, combined with IV propofol or dexmedetomidine, reduced in-hospital delirium vs placebo. Additional research, including comparison of IV vs oral acetaminophen and other potentially opioid-sparing analgesics, on the incidence of postoperative delirium is warranted.
Echec de la psychothérapie par les IDE de Réa contre le Stress post-traumatique post-réa ?
Importance A meta-analysis of outcomes during the 6 months after intensive care unit (ICU) discharge indicate a prevalence for clinically important posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms of 25%.
Objective To determine whether a nurse-led preventive, complex psychological intervention, initiated in the ICU, reduces patient-reported PTSD symptom severity at 6 months.
Design, Setting, and Participants A multicenter, parallel-group, cluster-randomized clinical trial with integrated economic and process evaluations conducted in 24 ICUs in the United Kingdom. Participants were critically ill patients who regained mental capacity following receipt of level 3 (intensive) care. A total of 2961 eligible patients were identified from September 2015 to January 2017. A total of 2048 were approached for participation in the ICU, of which 1458 provided informed consent. Follow-up was completed December 2017.
Interventions Twenty four ICUs were randomized 1:1 to the intervention or control group. Intervention ICUs (n = 12; 669 participants) delivered usual care during a baseline period followed by an intervention period. The preventive, complex psychological intervention comprised promotion of a therapeutic ICU environment plus 3 stress support sessions and a relaxation and recovery program delivered by trained ICU nurses to high-risk (acutely stressed) patients. Control ICUs (n = 12; 789 participants) delivered usual care in both baseline and intervention periods.
Main Outcomes and Measures The primary clinical outcome was PTSD symptom severity among survivors at 6 months measured using the PTSD Symptom Scale–Self-Report questionnaire (score range, 0-51, with higher scores indicating greater symptom severity; the minimal clinically important difference was considered to be 4.2 points).
Results Among 1458 enrolled patients (mean [SD] age, 58  years; 599 women [41%]), 1353 (93%) completed the study and were included in the final analysis. At 6 months, the mean PTSD Symptom Scale–Self-Report questionnaire score in intervention ICUs was 11.8 (baseline period) compared with 11.5 (intervention period) (difference, −0.40 [95% CI, −2.46 to 1.67]) and in control ICUs, 10.1 (baseline period) compared with 10.2 (intervention period) (difference, 0.06 [95% CI, −1.74 to 1.85]) between periods. There was no significant difference in PTSD symptom severity at 6 months (treatment effect estimate [difference in differences] of −0.03 [95% CI, −2.58 to 2.52]; P = .98).
Conclusions and Relevance Among critically ill patients in the ICU, a nurse-led preventive, complex psychological intervention did not significantly reduce patient-reported PTSD symptom severity at 6 months. These findings do not support the use of this psychological intervention.
Revue corticoïdes et sepsis
Intérêt d’une application contre les erreurs médicales pendant la réanimation en pédiatrie ?
Siebert et al., Lancet Child, 2019
Revue sur l’ECMO V-V
Munshi et al., Lancet Resp Med, 2019
Revue sur l’insuffisance respiratoire aigue chez les immunodéprimés
Azoulay, Lancet Resp Med, 2019
Le retour des colloïdes ?
Anesthesiology 2 2019, Vol.130, 227-236. doi:10.1097/ALN.0000000000002501
Background: The authors recently demonstrated that administration of balanced hydroxyethyl starch solution as part of intraoperative goal-directed fluid therapy was associated with better short-term outcomes than administration of a balanced crystalloid solution in patients having major open abdominal surgery. In the present study, a 1-yr follow-up of renal and disability outcomes in these patients was performed.
Methods: All patients enrolled in the earlier study were followed up 1 yr after surgery for renal function and disability using the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 (WHODAS). The main outcome measure was the estimated glomerular filtration rate. Other outcomes were serum creatinine, urea, pruritus, and WHODAS score. Groups were compared on a complete-case analysis basis, and modern imputation methods were then used in mixed-model regressions to assess the stability of the findings taking into account the missing data.
Results: Of the 160 patients enrolled in the original study, follow-up data were obtained for renal function in 129 and for WHODAS score in 114. There were no statistically significant differences in estimated glomerular filtration rate at 1 yr (ml min−1 1.73 m−2): 80 [65 to 92] for crystalloids versus 74 [64 to 94] for colloids; 95% CI [−10 to 7], P = 0.624. However, the WHODAS score (%) was statistically significantly lower in the colloid than in the crystalloid group (2.7 [0 to 12] vs. 7.6 [1.3 to 18]; P = 0.015), and disability-free survival was higher (79% vs. 60%; 95% CI [2 to 39]; P = 0.024).
Conclusions: In patients undergoing major open abdominal surgery, there was no evidence of a statistically significant difference in long-term renal function between a balanced hydroxyethyl starch and a balanced crystalloid solution used as part of intraoperative goal-directed fluid therapy, although there was only limited power to rule out a clinically significant difference. However, disability-free survival was significantly higher in the colloid than in the crystalloid group.
Influence du sexe et du langage corporel dans la perception des Anesthésistes
Background: Patient perception of physician competence is important. The role of body language and physician sex on patient perceptions has not been investigated. The authors hypothesized that patients perceive anesthesiologists displaying confident body language as more competent and that patients would prefer male anesthesiologists.
Methods: Two hundred adult patients presenting to the Preanesthesia Evaluation and Testing Center at the University of Virginia Health System were recruited to participate using consecutive sampling. Patients viewed four 90-s videos in random order. Each video featured a male or female actor displaying confident, high-power poses or unconfident, low-power poses. Each actor recited the same script describing general anesthesia. Patients were randomized (100 per group) to view one of two sets of videos to account for any actor preferences. Participants ranked each actor anesthesiologist on perceived confidence, intelligence, and likelihood of choosing that anesthesiologist to care for their family member. Participants also chose the one actor anesthesiologist who seemed most like a leader.
Results: Two hundred patients watched the videos and completed the questionnaire. Actor anesthesiologists displaying confident, high-power body language had greater odds of being ranked as more confident (odds ratio, 2.27; 95% CI, 1.76 to 2.92; P < 0.0001), more intelligent (odds ratio, 1.69; 95% CI, 1.13 to 2.18; P < 0.0001), more likely chosen to care for one’s family member (odds ratio, 2.34; 95% CI, 1.82 to 3.02; P < 0.0001), and more likely to be considered a leader (odds ratio, 2.60; 95% CI, 1.86 to 3.65; P < 0.0001). Actor anesthesiologist sex was not associated with ranking for any response measures.
Conclusions: Patients perceive anesthesiologists displaying confident body language as more confident, more intelligent, more like a leader, and are more likely to choose that anesthesiologist to care for their family member. Differences in patient perceptions based on sex of the anesthesiologist were not detected.
Gestion des vasopresseurs par une Boucle ?
Joosten et al., Anesthesiology, 2019
Background: Multiple studies have reported associations between intraoperative hypotension and adverse postoperative complications. One of the most common interventions in the management of hypotension is vasopressor administration. This approach requires careful and frequent vasopressor boluses and/or multiple adjustments of an infusion. The authors recently developed a closed-loop controller that titrates vasopressors to maintain mean arterial pressure (MAP) within set limits. Here, the authors assessed the feasibility and overall performance of this system in a swine model. The authors hypothesized that the closed-loop controller would be able to maintain MAP at a steady, predefined target level of 80 mmHg for greater than 85% of the time.
Methods: The authors randomized 14 healthy anesthetized pigs either to a control group or a closed-loop group. Using infusions of sodium nitroprusside at doses between 65 and 130 µg/min, we induced four normovolemic hypotensive challenges of 30 min each. In the control group, nothing was done to correct hypotension. In the closed-loop group, the system automatically titrated norepinephrine doses to achieve a predetermined MAP of 80 mmHg. The primary objective was study time spent within ±5 mmHg of the MAP target. Secondary objectives were performance error, median performance error, median absolute performance error, wobble, and divergence.
Results: The controller maintained MAP within ±5 mmHg of the target for 98 ± 1% (mean ± SD) of the time. In the control group, the MAP was 80 ± 5 mmHg for 14.0 ± 2.8% of the time (P< 0.0001). The MAP in the closed-loop group was above the target range for 1.2 ± 1.2% and below it for 0.5 ± 0.9% of the time. Performance error, median performance error, median absolute performance error, wobble, and divergence were all optimal.
Conclusions: In this experimental model of induced normovolemic hypotensive episodes in pigs, the automated controller titrated norepinephrine infusion to correct hypotension and keep MAP within ±5 mmHg of target for 98% of management time.
Intérêt de la ventilation guidée par la Driving Pressure en Chirurgie Thoracique ?
Background: Recently, several retrospective studies have suggested that pulmonary complication is related with driving pressure more than any other ventilatory parameter. Thus, the authors compared driving pressure–guided ventilation with conventional protective ventilation in thoracic surgery, where lung protection is of the utmost importance. The authors hypothesized that driving pressure–guided ventilation decreases postoperative pulmonary complications more than conventional protective ventilation.
Methods: In this double-blind, randomized, controlled study, 292 patients scheduled for elective thoracic surgery were included in the analysis. The protective ventilation group (n = 147) received conventional protective ventilation during one-lung ventilation: tidal volume 6 ml/kg of ideal body weight, positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) 5 cm H2O, and recruitment maneuver. The driving pressure group (n = 145) received the same tidal volume and recruitment, but with individualized PEEP which produces the lowest driving pressure (plateau pressure–PEEP) during one-lung ventilation. The primary outcome was postoperative pulmonary complications based on the Melbourne Group Scale (at least 4) until postoperative day 3.
Results: Melbourne Group Scale of at least 4 occurred in 8 of 145 patients (5.5%) in the driving pressure group, as compared with 18 of 147 (12.2%) in the protective ventilation group (P = 0.047, odds ratio 0.42; 95% CI, 0.18 to 0.99). The number of patients who developed pneumonia or acute respiratory distress syndrome was less in the driving pressure group than in the protective ventilation group (10/145 [6.9%] vs. 22/147 [15.0%], P = 0.028, odds ratio 0.42; 95% CI, 0.19 to 0.92).
Conclusions: Application of driving pressure–guided ventilation during one-lung ventilation was associated with a lower incidence of postoperative pulmonary complications compared with conventional protective ventilation in thoracic surgery.
Amisulpride comme nouvelle alternative en prévention des NVPO ?
Background: Although antiemetics are commonly used to prevent postoperative nausea or vomiting, the failure rate is appreciable and there is currently no generally accepted standard for rescue treatment of postoperative nausea or vomiting after failed prophylaxis. This prospective, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled, multicenter study was designed to test the hypothesis that intravenous amisulpride, a dopamine D2/D3-antagonist, is superior to placebo at treating established postoperative nausea or vomiting after failed prophylaxis.
Methods: A total of 2,285 adult patients undergoing surgery under general inhalational anesthesia and receiving standard antiemetic prophylaxis were enrolled at 23 sites in Canada, France, Germany, and the United States. Of these, 702 patients experienced postoperative nausea or vomiting in the 24-h period after surgery and were randomized to receive a single dose of 5 or 10 mg intravenous amisulpride or matching placebo. The primary endpoint was complete response, defined as no emesis or rescue antiemetic use for 24 h after study drug administration, excluding emesis in the first 30 min. Secondary endpoints included incidence of emesis and rescue medication use, nausea burden, time to treatment failure, and length of stay in postanesthesia care unit and hospital.
Results: Complete response occurred in significantly more patients receiving 10 mg amisulpride (96 of 230, 41.7%) than placebo (67 of 235, 28.5%), a 13.2% difference (95% CI, 4.6 to 21.8; odds ratio, 1.80; P= 0.006). A 5-mg dose of amisulpride did not show a significant benefit (80 of 237, 33.8%); the difference from placebo was 5.2% (95% CI, 3.1 to 13.6; odds ratio, 1.24; P = 0.109). The total number of adverse events recorded and proportion of patients with at least one adverse event were comparable between the placebo and amisulpride groups. No clinically relevant toxicities were observed.
Conclusions: A single 10-mg dose of intravenous amisulpride was safe and more effective than placebo at treating established postoperative nausea or vomiting in patients failing postoperative nausea or vomiting prophylaxis.
Revue sur le bloc des carrés des lombes
Recommandations de l’ASA sur les procédures de Sédation-Analgésie
New recommendations include:
Patient evaluation and preparation.
Continual monitoring of ventilatory function with capnography to supplement standard monitoring by observation and pulse oximetry.
The presence of an individual in the procedure room with the knowledge and skills to recognize and treat airway complications.
Sedatives and analgesics not intended for general anesthesia (e.g., benzodiazepines and dexmedetomidine).
Sedatives and analgesics intended for general anesthesia (e.g., propofol, ketamine, and etomidate).
Creation and implementation of quality improvement processes.
Augmentation de l’utilisation d’HBPM : NS sur l’incidence de TVP …
Stelfox et al., ICM, 2019
To test whether a multicomponent intervention would increase the use of low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) over unfractionated heparin (UFH) for venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis in critically ill patients and change patient outcomes and healthcare utilization.
Controlled pre–post trial of 12,342 adults admitted to 11 ICUs (five intervention, six control) May 1, 2015 to April 30, 2017 with no contraindication to pharmacological prophylaxis and an ICU stay longer than 24 h. Models were developed to examine temporal changes in ICU VTE prophylaxis (primary outcome), VTE, major bleeding, heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT), death and hospital costs.
The use of LMWH increased from 45.9% to 78.3% of patient days in the intervention group and from 37.9% to 53.3% in the control group, an absolute increase difference of 17.0% (32.4% vs. 15.4%, p = 0.001). Changes in the administration of UFH were inversely related to those of LMWH. There were no significant differences in the adjusted odds of VTE (ratio of odds ratios [rOR] 1.13, 95% CI 0.51–2.46) or major bleeding (rOR 1.22, 95% CI 0.97–1.54) post-implementation of the intervention (compared to pre-implementation) between the intervention group and the control group. HIT was uncommon in both groups (n = 20 patients). There were no significant changes for ICU and hospital mortality, length of stay and costs. Results were similar when stratified according to reason for ICU admission, patient weight and kidney function.
A multicomponent intervention changed practice, but not clinical and economic outcomes. The benefit of implementing LMWH for VTE prophylaxis under real-world conditions is uncertain.
La Clinique suffit-elle pour évaluer l’hémodynamique d’un patient ?
Hiemstra et al., ICM, 2019
Clinical examination is often the first step to diagnose shock and estimate cardiac index. In the Simple Intensive Care Studies-I, we assessed the association and diagnostic performance of clinical signs for estimation of cardiac index in critically ill patients.
In this prospective, single-centre cohort study, we included all acutely ill patients admitted to the ICU and expected to stay > 24 h. We conducted a protocolised clinical examination of 19 clinical signs followed by critical care ultrasonography for cardiac index measurement. Clinical signs were associated with cardiac index and a low cardiac index (< 2.2 L min−1 m2) in multivariable analyses. Diagnostic test accuracies were also assessed.
We included 1075 patients, of whom 783 (73%) had a validated cardiac index measurement. In multivariable regression, respiratory rate, heart rate and rhythm, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, central-to-peripheral temperature difference, and capillary refill time were statistically independently associated with cardiac index, with an overall R2 of 0.30 (98.5% CI 0.25–0.35). A low cardiac index was observed in 280 (36%) patients. Sensitivities and positive and negative predictive values were below 90% for all signs. Specificities above 90% were observed only for 110/280 patients, who had atrial fibrillation, systolic blood pressures < 90 mmHg, altered consciousness, capillary refill times > 4.5 s, or skin mottling over the knee.
Seven out of 19 clinical examination findings were independently associated with cardiac index. For estimation of cardiac index, clinical examination was found to be insufficient in multivariable analyses and in diagnostic accuracy tests. Additional measurements such as critical care ultrasonography remain necessary.
Programme de réduction personnalisée de l’inconfort : Enfin une étude efficace sur le stress post-traumatique…
Kalfon et al., ICM, 2019
Reducing discomfort in the intensive care unit (ICU) should have a positive effect on long-term outcomes. This study assessed whether a tailored multicomponent program for discomfort reduction was effective in reducing post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms at 1 year in general ICU survivors.
This study is a prospective observational comparative effectiveness cohort study involving 30 ICUs. It was an extension of the IPREA3 study, a cluster-randomized controlled trial designed to assess the efficacy of a tailored multicomponent program to reduce discomfort in critically ill patients. The program included assessment of ICU-related self-perceived discomforts, immediate and monthly feedback to the healthcare team, and site-specific tailored interventions. The exposure was the implementation of this program. The eligible patients were exposed versus unexposed general adult ICU survivors. The prevalence of substantial PTSD symptoms at 1 year was assessed based on the Impact of Event Scale–Revised (IES-R).
Of the 1537 ICU survivors included in the study, 475 unexposed patients and 344 exposed patients had follow-up data at 1 year: 57 (12.0%) and 21 (6.1%) presented with PTSD at 1 year, respectively (p = 0.004). Considering the clustering and after adjusting for age, gender, McCabe classification, and ICU-related self-perceived overall discomfort score, exposed patients were significantly less likely than unexposed patients to have substantial PTSD symptoms at 1 year (p = 0.015).
Implementation of a tailored multicomponent program in the ICU that has proved to be effective for reducing self-perceived discomfort in general adult ICU survivors also reduced the prevalence of substantial PTSD symptoms at 1 year.
Pas d’intérêt du cathéter d’analgésie sternal en post-opératoire de chirurgie cardiaque ?
Amour et al., ICM, 2019
Postoperative pain after cardiac surgery, exacerbated by cough and sternal mobilization, limits clearance of bronchopulmonary secretions and may predispose to postoperative pneumonia. In this study, we tested the ability of local anesthetic continuous wound infusion to prevent pneumonia after cardiac surgery with sternotomy and cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) owing to better analgesia and bronchopulmonary drainage.
In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial conducted in five academic centers, patients undergoing cardiac surgery with sternotomy and CPB were enrolled from February 2012 until November 2014, and were followed over 30 days. Patients were assigned to a 48-h infusion (10 ml h−1) of -bupivacaine (12.5 mg h−1) or placebo (saline) via a pre-sternal multiperforated catheter. Anesthesia and analgesia protocols were standardized. The primary end point was the incidence of pneumonia during the study period, i.e., until hospital discharge or 30 days. We hypothesized a 30% reduction in the incidence of pneumonia.
Among 1493 randomized patients, 1439 completed the trial. Pneumonia occurred in 36/746 patients (4.9%) in the -bupivacaine group and in 42/739 patients (5.7%) in the placebo group (absolute risk difference taking into account center and baseline risk of postoperative pneumonia, − 1.3% [95% CI − 3.4; 0.8] P = 0.22). In the predefined subgroup of patients at high risk, -bupivacaine decreased the incidence of pneumonia (absolute risk difference, − 5.6% [95% CI − 10.0; − 1.1], P = 0.01).
After cardiac surgery with sternotomy, continuous wound infusion of -bupivacaine failed to decrease the incidence of pneumonia. These findings do not support the use of local anesthetic continuous wound infusion in this indication. Further study should investigate its effect in high-risk patients.
Interaction entre l’âge et le Low-Flow sur le pronostic neurologique sous ECMO
Hsi-Yu Yu et al., ICM, 2019
Caseloads of extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR) have increased considerably, and hospital mortality rates remain high and unpredictable. The present study evaluated the effects of the interplay between age and prolonged low-flow duration (LFD) on hospital survival rates in elderly patients to identify subgroups that can benefit from ECPR.
Adult patients who received ECPR in our institution (2006–2016) were classified into groups 1, 2, and 3 (18–65, 65–75, and > 75 years, respectively). Data regarding ECPR and adverse events during hospitalization were collected prospectively. The primary end point was favorable neurologic outcome (cerebral performance category 1 or 2) at hospital discharge.
In total, 482 patients were divided into groups 1, 2, and 3 (70.5%, 19.3%, and 10.2%, respectively). LFDs were comparable among the groups (40.3, 41.0, and 44.3 min in groups 1, 2, and 3, P = 0.781, 0.231, and 0.382, respectively). Favorable neurologic outcome rates were nonsignificantly lower in group 3 than in the other groups (27.6%, 24.7%, and 18.4% for group 1, 2, and 3, respectively). Subgroup analysis revealed that the favorable neurologic outcome rates in group 1 were 36.7%, 25.4%, and 13.0% for LFDs of < 30, 30–60, and > 60 min, respectively (P = 0.005); in group 2, they were 32.1%, 21.2%, and 23.1%, respectively (P = 0.548); in group 3 they were 25.0%, 20.8%, and 0.0%, respectively (P = 0.274).
On emergency consultation for ECPR, age and low-flow duration should be considered together to predict neurologic outcome.
Etude pronostique sur la cinétique du lactate
Masyuk et al., ICM, 2019
Changes of lactate concentration over time were reported to be associated with survival in septic patients. We aimed to evaluate delta-lactate (ΔLac) 24 h after admission (Δ24Lac) to an intensive care unit (ICU) in critically ill patients for short- and long-term prognostic relevance.
In total, 26,285 lactate measurements of 2191 patients admitted to a German ICU were analyzed. Inclusion criterion was a lactate concentration at admission above 2.0 mmol/L. Maximum lactate concentrations of day 1 and day 2 were used to calculate Δ24Lac. Follow-up of patients was performed retrospectively. Association of Δ24Lac and both in-hospital and long-term mortality were investigated. An optimal cut-off was calculated by means of the Youden index.
Patients with lower Δ24Lac were of similar age, but clinically sicker. As continuous variable, higher Δ24Lac was associated with decreased in-hospital mortality (per 1% Δ24Lac; HR 0.987 95%CI 0.985–0.990; p < 0.001) and an optimal Δ24Lac cut-off was calculated at 19%. Δ24Lac ≤ 19% was associated with both increased in-hospital (15% vs 43%; OR 4.11; 95%CI 3.23–5.21; p < 0.001) and long-term mortality (HR 1.54 95%CI 1.28–1.87; p < 0.001), even after correction for APACHE II, need for catecholamines and intubation. We matched 256 patients with Δ24Lac ≤ 19% to case–controls > 19% corrected for APACHE II scores, baseline lactate level and sex: Δ24Lac ≤ 19% remained associated with lower in-hospital and long-term survival.
Lower Δ24Lac was robustly associated with adverse outcome in critically ill patients, even after correction for confounders. Δ24Lac might constitute an independent, easily available and important parameter for risk stratification in the critically ill.
Extubation avec relais VNI systématique chez les patients hypoxémique ?
Vaschetto et al., ICM, 2019
Noninvasive ventilation (NIV) may facilitate withdrawal of invasive mechanical ventilation (i-MV) and shorten intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay (LOS) in hypercapnic patients, while data are lacking on hypoxemic patients. We aim to determine whether NIV after early extubation reduces the duration of i-MV and ICU LOS in patients recovering from hypoxemic acute respiratory failure.
Highly selected non-hypercapnic hypoxemic patients were randomly assigned to receive NIV after early or standard extubation. Co-primary end points were duration of i-MV and ICU LOS. Secondary end points were treatment failure, severe events (hemorrhagic, septic, cardiac, renal or neurologic episodes, pneumothorax or pulmonary embolism), ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) or tracheobronchitis (VAT), tracheotomy, percent of patients receiving sedation after study enrollment, hospital LOS, and ICU and hospital mortality.
We enrolled 130 consecutive patients, 65 treatments and 65 controls. Duration of i-MV was shorter in the treatment group than for controls [4.0 (3.0–7.0) vs. 5.5 (4.0–9.0) days, respectively, p = 0.004], while ICU LOS was not significantly different [8.0 (6.0–12.0) vs. 9.0 (6.5–12.5) days, respectively (p = 0.259)]. Incidence of VAT or VAP (9% vs. 25%, p = 0.019), rate of patients requiring infusion of sedatives after enrollment (57% vs. 85%, p = 0.001), and hospital LOS, 20 (13–32) vs. 27(18–39) days (p = 0.043) were all significantly reduced in the treatment group compared with controls. There were no significant differences in ICU and hospital mortality or in the number of treatment failures, severe events, and tracheostomies.
In highly selected hypoxemic patients, early extubation followed by immediate NIV application reduced the days spent on invasive ventilation without affecting ICU LOS.
Revue sur les IPP pour l' »ulcère de stress »
Barbateskovic et al., ICM, 2019
Un rapport PNN/Lymphocytes > 4 en pré-opératoire associé à un sur risque d’événements cardiovasculaires ?
G.L. Ackland et al., BJA, 2019
Systemic inflammation is pivotal in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. As inflammation can directly cause cardiomyocyte injury, we hypothesised that established systemic inflammation, as reflected by elevated preoperative neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) >4, predisposes patients to perioperative myocardial injury.
We prospectively recruited 1652 patients aged ≥45 yr who underwent non-cardiac surgery in two UK centres. Serum high sensitivity troponin T (hsTnT) concentrations were measured on the first three postoperative days. Clinicians and investigators were blinded to the troponin results. The primary outcome was perioperative myocardial injury, defined as hsTnT≥14 ng L−1 within 3 days after surgery. We assessed whether myocardial injury was associated with preoperative NLR>4, activated reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in circulating monocytes, or both. Multivariable logistic regression analysis explored associations between age, sex, NLR, Revised Cardiac Risk Index, individual leukocyte subsets, and myocardial injury. Flow cytometric quantification of ROS was done in 21 patients. Data are presented as n (%) or odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals.
Preoperative NLR>4 was present in 239/1652 (14.5%) patients. Myocardial injury occurred in 405/1652 (24.5%) patients and was more common in patients with preoperative NLR>4 [OR: 2.56 (1.92–3.41); P<0.0001]. Myocardial injury was independently associated with lower absolute preoperative lymphocyte count [OR 1.80 (1.50–2.17); P<0.0001] and higher absolute preoperative monocyte count [OR 1.93 (1.12–3.30); P=0.017]. Monocyte ROS generation correlated with NLR (r=0.47; P=0.03).
Preoperative NLR>4 is associated with perioperative myocardial injury, independent of conventional risk factors. Systemic inflammation may contribute to the development of perioperative myocardial injury.
Détection de Delirium par EEG ?
Numan et al., BJA, 2019
Delirium is frequently unrecognised. EEG shows slower frequencies (i.e. below 4 Hz) during delirium, which might be useful in improving delirium recognition. We studied the discriminative performance of a brief single-channel EEG recording for delirium detection in an independent cohort of patients.
In this prospective, multicentre study, postoperative patients aged ≥60 yr were included (n=159). Before operation and during the first 3 postoperative days, patients underwent a 5-min EEG recording, followed by a video-recorded standardised cognitive assessment. Two or, in case of disagreement, three delirium experts classified each postoperative day based on the video and chart review. Relative delta power (1–4 Hz) was based on 1-min artifact-free EEG. The diagnostic value of the relative delta power was evaluated by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC), using the expert classification as the gold standard.
Experts classified 84 (23.3%) postoperative days as either delirium or possible delirium, and 276 (76.7%) non-delirium days. The AUROC of the relative EEG delta power was 0.75 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.69–0.82]. Exploratory analysis showed that relative power from 1 to 6 Hz had significantly higher AUROC (0.78, 95% CI 0.72–0.84, P=0.014).
Delirium/possible delirium can be detected in older postoperative patients based on a single-channel EEG recording that can be automatically analysed. This objective detection method with a continuous scale instead of a dichotomised outcome is a promising approach for routine detection of delirium.
Evaluation économique de l’ECMO V-V dans les SDRA sévères
Critical Care Medicine: February 2019 – Volume 47 – Issue 2 – p 186–193
Objectives: Venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation is increasingly being used to support patients with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome, but its cost-effectiveness is unknown. We assessed the cost-utility of venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for severe acute respiratory distress syndrome in adults compared with standard lung protective ventilation from the perspective of the healthcare system.
Design: We conducted a cost-utility analysis with a cohort state transition decision model using a lifetime time horizon, 1.5% discount rate, and outcomes reported as cost per quality-adjusted life year. Literature reviews were conducted to inform the model variables. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were conducted to assess uncertainty in the model.
Setting: Canadian publicly funded healthcare system.
Patients: Hypothetical cohort of adults with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome.
Interventions: Venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation or standard lung protective ventilation.
Measurements and Main Results: In our model, the use of venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenationcompared with lung protective ventilation resulted in a gain of 5.2 life years and 4.05 quality-adjusted life years, at an additional lifetime cost of $145,697 Canadian dollars. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was $36,001/quality-adjusted life year. Sensitivity analyses show that the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio is sensitive to the efficacy of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation therapy and costs.
Conclusions: Based on current data, venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation is cost-effective for patients with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome. Additional evidence on the efficacy of venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for acute respiratory distress syndrome and in different subgroups of patients will allow for greater certainty in its cost-effectiveness.
Comparaison de l’impact d’une réanimation extra-hospitalière par médecins en civil versus population formée
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) performed by bystanders is a key factor for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) survival. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between CPR performed by off-duty medical professionals vs. laypersons and one-month survival with favorable neurological outcome after OHCA.
Using a population-based database of OHCA patients in Osaka City, Japan, from 2013 through 2015, we enrolled adult OHCA patients with resuscitation attempts performed by bystanders before the arrival of emergency-medical-service personnel. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the association between CPR performed by off-duty medical professionals vs. laypersons and the OHCA outcome after adjusting for potential confounding factors. The primary outcome measure was one-month survival with favorable neurological outcome, defined as cerebral performance category of 1 or 2.
A total of 2326 subjects were eligible for our study. Among these, 365 (15.7%) patients received CPR by off-duty medical professionals and 1,961 (84.3%) received CPR by laypersons. In the multivariable analysis, there was no difference in favorable neurological outcome between off-duty medical professionals (6.3% [23/365]) and laypersons (5.1% [100/1,961]) among eligible patients (adjusted odds ratio 0.83, 95% confidence interval [0.37–2.06]). This ﬁnding was also conﬁrmed in propensity score-matched patients.
In Japan where the CPR training or bystander CPR has been widely disseminating, CPR by laypersons had similar effects compared to that by off-duty medical professionals. As this study could not assess the quality of bystander CPR, further studies are essential to verify the effects of the bystander CPR type on OHCA patients.
Revue sur la balance bénéfice-risque de l’utilisation de citrate chez les patients avec une défaillance hépatique
Zhang et al.,
Recommandations sur la gestion du choc septique chez l’enfant