Biblio du mois : Août 2018
Et oui malgré la fin de l’été 2018, le soleil de la Biblio du mois de l’AJAR Paris continue de vous tenir informé !
Encore une biblio exhaustive entre Revue sur le delirium ou sur la gestion analgésique des toxicomanes et du sepsis, beaucoup de sepsis !
On touchera un mot sur la revue sur les corticoïdes dans le sepsis (l’équipe d’Annane continue de publier), l’intérêt du paracétamol dans les palus graves, il y a surtout enfin la publication de l’étude contre la Tazocilline dans les infections à BLSE !
Et puis quand les grands journaux discutent de remplissage vasculaire, de masques laryngés ou de tester l’intérêt de l’Adrénaline dans les ACRs, on ne peut pas rater ça !
Vive l’Anesthésie-Réanimation !
Pas d’intérêt de l’acide tranexamique systématique après accouchement par voie basse dans la prévention de l’hémorragie de la délivrance ?
Tranexamic Acid for the Prevention of Blood Loss after Vaginal Delivery
Loïc Sentilhes, M.D., Ph.D., Norbert Winer, M.D., Ph.D., Elie Azria, M.D., Ph.D., Marie-Victoire Sénat, M.D., Ph.D., Camille Le Ray, M.D., Ph.D., Delphine Vardon, M.D., Franck Perrotin, M.D., Ph.D., Raoul Desbrière, M.D., Florent Fuchs, M.D., Ph.D., Gilles Kayem, M.D., Ph.D., Guillaume Ducarme, M.D., Ph.D., Muriel Doret-Dion, M.D., Ph.D.,
et al., for the Groupe de Recherche en Obstétrique et Gynécologie*
August 23, 2018
N Engl J Med 2018; 379:731-742
The use of tranexamic acid reduces mortality due to postpartum hemorrhage. We investigated whether the prophylactic administration of tranexamic acid in addition to prophylactic oxytocin in women with vaginal delivery would decrease the incidence of postpartum hemorrhage.
In a multicenter, double-blind, randomized, controlled trial, we randomly assigned women in labor who had a planned vaginal delivery of a singleton live fetus at 35 or more weeks of gestation to receive 1 g of tranexamic acid or placebo, administered intravenously, in addition to prophylactic oxytocin after delivery. The primary outcome was postpartum hemorrhage, defined as blood loss of at least 500 ml, measured with a collector bag.
Of the 4079 women who underwent randomization, 3891 had a vaginal delivery. The primary outcome occurred in 156 of 1921 women (8.1%) in the tranexamic acid group and in 188 of 1918 (9.8%) in the placebo group (relative risk, 0.83; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.68 to 1.01; P=0.07). Women in the tranexamic acid group had a lower rate of provider-assessed clinically significant postpartum hemorrhage than those in the placebo group (7.8% vs. 10.4%; relative risk, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.61 to 0.91; P=0.004; P=0.04 after adjustment for multiple comparisons post hoc) and also received additional uterotonic agents less often (7.2% vs. 9.7%; relative risk, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.61 to 0.92; P=0.006; adjusted P=0.04). Other secondary outcomes did not differ significantly between the two groups. The incidence of thromboembolic events in the 3 months after delivery did not differ significantly between the tranexamic acid group and the placebo group (0.1% and 0.2%, respectively; relative risk, 0.25; 95% CI, 0.03 to 2.24).
Among women with vaginal delivery who received prophylactic oxytocin, the use of tranexamic acid did not result in a rate of postpartum hemorrhage of at least 500 ml that was significantly lower than the rate with placebo. (Funded by the French Ministry of Health; TRAAP ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02302456.)
Enfin un essai évaluant les bolus d’adrénaline dans la réanimation des arrêts cardio-circulatoires extra-hospitaliers !
–> Plus de survie globale mais plus de handicap neurologique sévère ?
A Randomized Trial of Epinephrine in Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest
Gavin D. Perkins, M.D., Chen Ji, Ph.D., Charles D. Deakin, M.D., Tom Quinn, M.Phil., Jerry P. Nolan, M.B., Ch.B., Charlotte Scomparin, M.Sc., Scott Regan, B.A., John Long, Anne Slowther, Ph.D., Helen Pocock, M.Sc., John J.M. Black, M.B., B.S., Fionna Moore, M.B., B.S., et al., for the PARAMEDIC2 Collaborators
August 23, 2018
N Engl J Med 2018; 379:711-721
Concern about the use of epinephrine as a treatment for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest led the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation to call for a placebo-controlled trial to determine whether the use of epinephrine is safe and effective in such patients.
In a randomized, double-blind trial involving 8014 patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in the United Kingdom, paramedics at five National Health Service ambulance services administered either parenteral epinephrine (4015 patients) or saline placebo (3999 patients), along with standard care. The primary outcome was the rate of survival at 30 days. Secondary outcomes included the rate of survival until hospital discharge with a favorable neurologic outcome, as indicated by a score of 3 or less on the modified Rankin scale (which ranges from 0 [no symptoms] to 6 [death]).
At 30 days, 130 patients (3.2%) in the epinephrine group and 94 (2.4%) in the placebo group were alive (unadjusted odds ratio for survival, 1.39; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06 to 1.82; P=0.02). There was no evidence of a significant difference in the proportion of patients who survived until hospital discharge with a favorable neurologic outcome (87 of 4007 patients [2.2%] vs. 74 of 3994 patients [1.9%]; unadjusted odds ratio, 1.18; 95% CI, 0.86 to 1.61). At the time of hospital discharge, severe neurologic impairment (a score of 4 or 5 on the modified Rankin scale) had occurred in more of the survivors in the epinephrine group than in the placebo group (39 of 126 patients [31.0%] vs. 16 of 90 patients [17.8%]).
In adults with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, the use of epinephrine resulted in a significantly higher rate of 30-day survival than the use of placebo, but there was no significant between-group difference in the rate of a favorable neurologic outcome because more survivors had severe neurologic impairment in the epinephrine group. (Funded by the U.K. National Institute for Health Research and others; Current Controlled Trials number, ISRCTN73485024.)
Efficacité de la thrombolyse guidée par le mismatch perfusion/FLAIR pour les AVC ischémiques de délai inconnu ?
MRI-Guided Thrombolysis for Stroke with Unknown Time of Onset
Götz Thomalla, M.D., Claus Z. Simonsen, M.D., Ph.D., Florent Boutitie, Ph.D., Grethe Andersen, M.D., D.M.Sc., Yves Berthezene, M.D., Bastian Cheng, M.D., Bharath Cheripelli, M.D., Tae-Hee Cho, M.D., Franz Fazekas, M.D., Jens Fiehler, M.D., Ian Ford, Ph.D., Ivana Galinovic, M.D., et al., for the WAKE-UP Investigators*
August 16, 2018
N Engl J Med 2018; 379:611-622
Under current guidelines, intravenous thrombolysis is used to treat acute stroke only if it can be ascertained that the time since the onset of symptoms was less than 4.5 hours. We sought to determine whether patients with stroke with an unknown time of onset and features suggesting recent cerebral infarction on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) would benefit from thrombolysis with the use of intravenous alteplase.
In a multicenter trial, we randomly assigned patients who had an unknown time of onset of stroke to receive either intravenous alteplase or placebo. All the patients had an ischemic lesion that was visible on MRI diffusion-weighted imaging but no parenchymal hyperintensity on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR), which indicated that the stroke had occurred approximately within the previous 4.5 hours. We excluded patients for whom thrombectomy was planned. The primary end point was favorable outcome, as defined by a score of 0 or 1 on the modified Rankin scale of neurologic disability (which ranges from 0 [no symptoms] to 6 [death]) at 90 days. A secondary outcome was the likelihood that alteplase would lead to lower ordinal scores on the modified Rankin scale than would placebo (shift analysis).
The trial was stopped early owing to cessation of funding after the enrollment of 503 of an anticipated 800 patients. Of these patients, 254 were randomly assigned to receive alteplase and 249 to receive placebo. A favorable outcome at 90 days was reported in 131 of 246 patients (53.3%) in the alteplase group and in 102 of 244 patients (41.8%) in the placebo group (adjusted odds ratio, 1.61; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.09 to 2.36; P=0.02). The median score on the modified Rankin scale at 90 days was 1 in the alteplase group and 2 in the placebo group (adjusted common odds ratio, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.17 to 2.23; P=0.003). There were 10 deaths (4.1%) in the alteplase group and 3 (1.2%) in the placebo group (odds ratio, 3.38; 95% CI, 0.92 to 12.52; P=0.07). The rate of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage was 2.0% in the alteplase group and 0.4% in the placebo group (odds ratio, 4.95; 95% CI, 0.57 to 42.87; P=0.15).
In patients with acute stroke with an unknown time of onset, intravenous alteplase guided by a mismatch between diffusion-weighted imaging and FLAIR in the region of ischemia resulted in a significantly better functional outcome and numerically more intracranial hemorrhages than placebo at 90 days. (Funded by the European Union Seventh Framework Program; WAKE-UP ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01525290; and EudraCT number, 2011-005906-32.)
Quand Nature parle de remplissage vasculaire :
Nature Reviews Nephrology, 2018
Revue sur les corticoides lors du sepsis pour être a la page sur le sujet
Masque laryngé versus Intubation dans les ACR extra-hospitaliers
1) Etude AIRWAYS-2 : pas de supériorité du masque laryngé
2) Meilleur survie à 72h ?
Etude contre l’utilisation de Tazocilline dans les infections à BLSE
Importance Extended-spectrum β-lactamases mediate resistance to third-generation cephalosporins (eg, ceftriaxone) in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Significant infections caused by these strains are usually treated with carbapenems, potentially selecting for carbapenem resistance. Piperacillin-tazobactam may be an effective “carbapenem-sparing” option to treat extended-spectrum β-lactamase producers.
Objectives To determine whether definitive therapy with piperacillin-tazobactam is noninferior to meropenem (a carbapenem) in patients with bloodstream infection caused by ceftriaxone-nonsusceptible E coli or K pneumoniae.
Design, Setting, and Participants Noninferiority, parallel group, randomized clinical trial included hospitalized patients enrolled from 26 sites in 9 countries from February 2014 to July 2017. Adult patients were eligible if they had at least 1 positive blood culture with E coli or Klebsiella spp testing nonsusceptible to ceftriaxone but susceptible to piperacillin-tazobactam. Of 1646 patients screened, 391 were included in the study.
Interventions Patients were randomly assigned 1:1 to intravenous piperacillin-tazobactam, 4.5 g, every 6 hours (n = 188 participants) or meropenem, 1 g, every 8 hours (n = 191 participants) for a minimum of 4 days, up to a maximum of 14 days, with the total duration determined by the treating clinician.
Main Outcomes and Measures The primary outcome was all-cause mortality at 30 days after randomization. A noninferiority margin of 5% was used.
Results Among 379 patients (mean age, 66.5 years; 47.8% women) who were randomized appropriately, received at least 1 dose of study drug, and were included in the primary analysis population, 378 (99.7%) completed the trial and were assessed for the primary outcome. A total of 23 of 187 patients (12.3%) randomized to piperacillin-tazobactam met the primary outcome of mortality at 30 days compared with 7 of 191 (3.7%) randomized to meropenem (risk difference, 8.6% [1-sided 97.5% CI, −∞ to 14.5%]; P = .90 for noninferiority). Effects were consistent in an analysis of the per-protocol population. Nonfatal serious adverse events occurred in 5 of 188 patients (2.7%) in the piperacillin-tazobactam group and 3 of 191 (1.6%) in the meropenem group.
Conclusions and relevance Among patients with E coli or K pneumoniae bloodstream infection and ceftriaxone resistance, definitive treatment with piperacillin-tazobactam compared with meropenem did not result in a noninferior 30-day mortality. These findings do not support use of piperacillin-tazobactam in this setting.
Comment éviter les complications liées aux VVP ?
Rickard et al., Lancet, 2018
Méta-analyse sur les traitements des colites à Clostridium difficile
Paracétamol en tant que néphroprotecteur dans les crises palustres graves ?
Acute kidney injury independently predicts mortality in falciparum malaria. It is unknown whether acetaminophen’s capacity to inhibit plasma hemoglobin-mediated oxidation is renoprotective in severe malaria.
This phase 2, open-label, randomized controlled trial conducted at two hospitals in Bangladesh assessed effects on renal function, safety, pharmacokinetic (PK) properties and pharmacodynamic (PD) effects of acetaminophen. Febrile patients (>12 years) with severe falciparum malaria were randomly assigned to receive acetaminophen (1 g 6–hourly for 72 hours) or no acetaminophen, in addition to intravenous artesunate. Primary outcome was the proportional change in creatinine after 72 hours stratified by median plasma hemoglobin.
Between 2012 and 2014, 62 patients were randomly assigned to receive acetaminophen (n = 31) or no acetaminophen (n = 31). Median (interquartile range) reduction in creatinine after 72 hours was 23% (37% to 18%) in patients assigned to acetaminophen, versus 14% (29% to 0%) in patients assigned to no acetaminophen (P = .043). This difference in reduction was 37% (48% to 22%) versus 14% (30% to −71%) in patients with hemoglobin ≥45000 ng/mL (P = .010). The proportion with progressing kidney injury was higher among controls (subdistribution hazard ratio, 3.0; 95% confidence interval, 1.1 to 8.5; P = .034). PK–PD analyses showed that higher exposure to acetaminophen increased the probability of creatinine improvement. No patient fulfilled Hy’s law for hepatotoxicity.
In this proof-of-principle study, acetaminophen showed renoprotection without evidence of safety concerns in patients with severe falciparum malaria, particularly in those with prominent intravascular hemolysis.
Impact du don d’organes sur le deuil des familles
Kentish-Barnes ,et al., AJRCCM, 2018
Rationale: Studies show that the quality of end-of-life communication and care have a significant impact on the living long after the death of a relative and have been implicated in the burden of psychological symptoms after the ICU experience. In the case of organ donation, the patient’s relatives are centrally involved in the decision-making process; yet, few studies have examined the impact of the quality of communication on the burden of psychological symptoms after death.
Objectives: To assess the experience of the organ donation process and grief symptoms in relatives of brain-dead patients who discussed organ donation in the ICU.
Methods: We conducted a multicenter longitudinal study in 28 ICUs in France. Participants were the relatives of brain-dead patients who were approached to discuss organ donation. Relatives were followed-up by phone at three time points: at 1 month, to complete a questionnaire describing their experience of the organ donation process; at 3 months, to complete the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and the Impact of Event Scale–Revised; and at 9 months, to complete the Impact of Event Scale–Revised and the Inventory of Complicated Grief.
Measurements and Main Results: In total, 202 relatives of 202 patients were included, of whom 158 consented to and 44 refused organ donation. Interviews were conducted at 1, 3, and 9 months with 78%, 68%, and 58% of relatives, respectively. The overall experience of the organ donation process was significantly more burdensome for relatives of nondonors. They were more dissatisfied with communication (27% vs. 10%; P = 0.021), more often shocked by the request (65% vs. 19%; P < 0.0001), and more often found the decision difficult (53% vs. 27%; P = 0.017). However, there were no significant differences in grief symptoms measured at 3 and 9 months between the two groups. Understanding of brain death was associated with grief symptoms; our results show a higher prevalence of complicated grief symptoms among relatives who did not understand the brain death process than among those who did (75% vs. 46.1%; P = 0.026).
Conclusions: Experience of the organ donation process varied between relatives of donor versus nondonor patients, with relatives of nondonors experiencing lower-quality communication, but the decision was not associated with subsequent grief symptoms. Importantly, understanding of brain death is a key element of the organ donation process for relatives.
Atrophie diaphragmatique à cause de la PEP ?
Lindqvist , et al., AJRCCM, 2018
Rationale: Diaphragm weakness in critically ill patients prolongs ventilator dependency and duration of hospital stay and increases mortality and healthcare costs. The mechanisms underlying diaphragm weakness include cross-sectional fiber atrophy and contractile protein dysfunction, but whether additional mechanisms are at play is unknown.
Objectives: To test the hypothesis that mechanical ventilation with positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) induces longitudinal atrophy by displacing the diaphragm in the caudal direction and reducing the length of fibers.
Methods: We studied structure and function of diaphragm fibers of mechanically ventilated critically ill patients and mechanically ventilated rats with normal and increased titin compliance.
Measurements and Main Results: PEEP causes a caudal movement of the diaphragm, both in critically ill patients and in rats, and this caudal movement reduces fiber length. Diaphragm fibers of 18-hour mechanically ventilated rats (PEEP of 2.5 cm H2O) adapt to the reduced length by absorbing serially linked sarcomeres, the smallest contractile units in muscle (i.e., longitudinal atrophy). Increasing the compliance of titin molecules reduces longitudinal atrophy.
Conclusions: Mechanical ventilation with PEEP results in longitudinal atrophy of diaphragm fibers, a response that is modulated by the elasticity of the giant sarcomeric protein titin. We postulate that longitudinal atrophy, in concert with the aforementioned cross-sectional atrophy, hampers spontaneous breathing trials in critically ill patients: during these efforts, end-expiratory lung volume is reduced, and the shortened diaphragm fibers are stretched to excessive sarcomere lengths. At these lengths, muscle fibers generate less force, and diaphragm weakness ensues.
Impact du DV précoce en réanimation ?
Xin , et al., AJRCCM, 2018
Rationale: It remains unclear how prone positioning improves survival in acute respiratory distress syndrome. Using serial computed tomography (CT), we previously reported that “unstable” inflation (i.e., partial aeration with large tidal density swings, indicating increased local strain) is associated with injury progression.
Objectives: We prospectively tested whether prone position contains the early propagation of experimental lung injury by stabilizing inflation.
Methods: Injury was induced by tracheal hydrochloric acid in rats; after randomization to supine or prone position, injurious ventilation was commenced using high tidal volume and low positive end-expiratory pressure. Paired end-inspiratory (EI) and end-expiratory (EE) CT scans were acquired at baseline and hourly up to 3 hours. Each sequential pair (EI, EE) of CT images was superimposed in parametric response maps to analyze inflation. Unstable inflation was then measured in each voxel in both dependent and nondependent lung. In addition, five pigs were imaged (EI and EE) prone versus supine, before and (1 hour) after hydrochloric acid aspiration.
Measurements and Main Results: In rats, prone position limited lung injury propagation and increased survival (11/12 vs. 7/12 supine; P = 0.01). EI–EE densities, respiratory mechanics, and blood gases deteriorated more in supine versus prone rats. At baseline, more voxels with unstable inflation occurred in dependent versus nondependent regions when supine (41 ± 6% vs. 18 ± 7%; P < 0.01) but not when prone. In supine pigs, unstable inflation predominated in dorsal regions and was attenuated by prone positioning.
Conclusions: Prone position limits the radiologic progression of early lung injury. Minimizing unstable inflation in this setting may alleviate the burden of acute respiratory distress syndrome.
IPP ou anti-H2 dans la prévention de l’ulcère de stress ?
Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and histamine type 2 receptor blockers (H2Bs) are used for stress ulcer prophylaxis. Although the PPIs have greater potency for acid suppression, their relative effectiveness for preventing clinically important GI bleeding (CIGIB) has not been established. The goal of this study was to determine whether prophylactic PPIs were associated with lower risk of CIGIB than H2Bs among critically ill adults.
This retrospective cohort study included adults with critical illness from January 1, 2008, to June 30, 2012, who had at least one stress ulcer risk factor and received a PPI or H2B for ≥ 3 days. Cox proportional hazards regression propensity score matching and instrumental variable analyses were used to control for selection bias and confounding by unmeasured factors. The Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation Score version IV score was used to adjust for differences of acuity. The main outcome and exposure was CIGIB.
Among 70,093 patients at risk, 49,576 (70.7%) received prophylaxis for at least 3 days, and 424 patients (0.6%) met the definition for experiencing CIGIB. The hazard for CIGIB was two times greater for PPI users compared with H2B users (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.82 [95% CI, 1.19-2.78]; hazard ratio, 2.37 [95% CI, 1.61-3.5]). Sensitivity analyses failed to detect any plausible scenario in which PPIs were superior to H2Bs for the prevention of CIGIB.
H2Bs were robustly and consistently associated with significantly lower CIGIB risk compared with PPIs in this population.
Revue sur le choc vasoplégique réfractaire
Association entre le risque de bactériémie et la carence martiale
As iron is essential for both immune function and microbial growth, alterations in iron status could influence the risk of infections. We assessed the associations of iron status with risk of bloodstream infections (BSIs) and BSI mortality.
We measured serum iron, transferrin saturation (Tsat) and total iron-binding capacity (TIBC) in 61,852 participants in the population-based HUNT2 study (1995–97). Incident BSIs (1995–2011) were identified through linkage with the Mid-Norway Sepsis Register, which includes prospectively registered information on BSI from local and regional hospitals. We assessed the risk of a first-time BSI and BSI mortality with the iron indices using Cox proportional hazards regression analysis.
During a median follow-up of 14.8 years, 1738 individuals experienced at least one episode of BSI, and 370 died within 30 days after a BSI. In age- and sex-adjusted analyses, BSI risk was increased among participants with indices of iron deficiency, serum iron ≤ 2.5th percentile (HR 1.72, 95% CI 1.34–2.21), Tsat ≤ 2.5th percentile (HR 1.48, 95% CI 1.12–1.96) or TIBC ≥ 97.5th percentile (HR 1.46, 95% CI 1.06–2.01). The associations remained similar after adjusting for comorbidities and exclusion of BSI related to cancer, rheumatic illnesses and inflammatory bowel disease. BSI mortality showed similar associations.
Indices of severe iron deficiency are associated with an increased risk of a future BSI.
Rôle de la réponse immunitaire dans les candidoses invasives
Qualité de vie après la réanimation : Impact du sepsis ?
To determine differences in health-related quality of life (HRQoL), survival and healthcare resource use of critically ill adults with and without sepsis.
We conducted a primary propensity score matched analysis of patients with and without sepsis enrolled in a large multicentre clinical trial. Outcomes included HRQoL at 6 months, survival to 2 years, length of ICU and hospital admission and cost of ICU and hospital treatment to 2 years.
We obtained linked data for 3442 (97.3%) of 3537 eligible patients and matched 806/905 (89.0%) patients with sepsis with 806/2537 (31.7%) without. After matching, there were no significant differences in the proportion of survivors with and without sepsis reporting problems with mobility (37.8% vs. 38.7%, p = 0.86), self-care (24.7% vs. 26.0%, p = 0.44), usual activities (44.5% vs. 46.8%, p = 0.28), pain/discomfort (42.4% vs. 41.6%, p = 0.54) and anxiety/depression (36.9% vs. 37.7%, p = 0.68). There was no significant difference in survival at 2 years: 482/792 (60.9%) vs. 485/799 (60.7%) (HR 1.01, 95% CI 0.86–1.18, p = 0.94). The initial ICU and hospital admission were longer for patients with sepsis: 10.1 ± 11.9 vs. 8.0 ± 9.8 days (p < 0.0001) and 22.8 ± 21.2 vs. 19.1 ± 19.0 days, (p = 0.0003) respectively. The cost of ICU admissions was higher for patients with sepsis: A$43,345 ± 46,263 (€35,109 ± 35,043) versus 34,844 ± 38,281 (€28,223 ± 31,007), mean difference $8501 (€6885), 95% CI $4342–12,660 (€3517 ± 10,254), p < 0.001 as was the total cost of hospital treatment to 2 years: A$74,120 ± 60,750 (€60,037 ± 49,207) versus A$65,806 ± 59,856 (€53,302 ± 48,483), p = 0.005.
Critically ill patients with sepsis have higher healthcare resource use and costs but similar survival and HRQoL compared to matched patients without sepsis.
Impact de la Pression motrice dans SDRA chez l’obèse : NS
The relation between driving pressure (plateau pressure-positive end-expiratory pressure) and mortality has never been studied in obese ARDS patients. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between 90-day mortality and driving pressure in an ARDS population ventilated in the intensive care unit (ICU) according to obesity status.
We conducted a retrospective single-center study of prospectively collected data of all ARDS patients admitted consecutively to a mixed medical-surgical adult ICU from January 2009 to May 2017. Plateau pressure, compliance of the respiratory system (Crs) and driving pressure of the respiratory system within 24 h of ARDS diagnosis were compared between survivors and non-survivors at day 90 and between obese (body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m2) and non-obese patients. Cox proportional hazard modeling was used for mortality at day 90.
Three hundred sixty-two ARDS patients were included, 262 (72%) non-obese and 100 (28%) obese patients. Mortality rate at day 90 was respectively 47% (95% CI, 40–53) in the non-obese and 46% (95% CI, 36–56) in the obese patients. Driving pressure at day 1 in the non-obese patients was significantly lower in survivors at day 90 (11.9 ± 4.2 cmH2O) than in non-survivors (15.2 ± 5.2 cmH2O, p < 0.001). Contrarily, in obese patients, driving pressure at day 1 was not significantly different between survivors (13.7 ± 4.5 cmH2O) and non-survivors (13.2 ± 5.1 cmH2O, p = 0.41) at day 90. After three multivariate Cox analyses, plateau pressure [HR = 1.04 (95% CI 1.01–1.07) for each point of increase], Crs [HR = 0.97 (95% CI 0.96–0.99) for each point of increase] and driving pressure [HR = 1.07 (95% CI 1.04–1.10) for each point of increase], respectively, were independently associated with 90-day mortality in non-obese patients, but not in obese patients.
Contrary to non-obese ARDS patients, driving pressure was not associated with mortality in obese ARDS patients.
Management periopératoire du patiente toxicomane aux opoides
Délirium post-opératoire : une revue de la littérature
Variation de l’INR induite par la transfusion de PFC
Anaphylaxie : Intérêt du rapport (Tryptase pendant l’allergie/Tryptase basale) ?
Devenir fonctionnel des patients admis pour tuberculose méningée : effet délétère de l’hyperprotéinorrachie et de l’hydrocéphalie, protecteur de la corticothérapie adjuvante
Functional outcomes in adults with tuberculous meningitis admitted to the ICU: a multicenter cohort study
Marie Cantier, Adeline Morisot, Emmanuel Guérot, Bruno Megarbane, Keyvan Razazi, Damien Contou, Eric Mariotte, Emmanuel Canet, Etienne De Montmollin, Vincent Dubée, Eric Boulet, Stéphane Gaudry, Guillaume Voiriot, Julien Mayaux, Frédéric Pène, Mathilde Neuville, Bruno Mourvillier, Stéphane Ruckly, Lila Bouadma, Michel Wolff, Jean-François Timsit, Romain Sonneville and ENCEPHALITICA study group
Un BMI < 22kg/m2 et une balance hydrique positive sont des facteurs prédicteurs d’un pic d’amikacine insuffisnat chez les patients sous ECMO
Predictors of insufficient peak amikacin concentration in critically ill patients on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation
Cyril Touchard, Alexandra Aubry, Philippine Eloy, Nicolas Bréchot, Guillaume Lebreton, Guillaume Franchineau, Sebastien Besset, Guillaume Hékimian, Ania Nieszkowska, Pascal Leprince, Charles-Edouard Luyt, Alain Combes and Matthieu Schmidt
Amikacin infusion requires targeting a peak serum concentration (Cmax) 8–10 times the minimal inhibitory concentration, corresponding to a Cmax of 60–80 mg/L for the least susceptible bacteria to theoretically prevent therapeutic failure. Because drug pharmacokinetics on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) are challenging, we undertook this study to assess the frequency of insufficient amikacin Cmax in critically ill patients on ECMO and to identify relative risk factors.
This was a prospective, observational, monocentric study in a university hospital. Patients on ECMO who received an amikacin loading dose for suspected Gram-negative infections were included. The amikacin loading dose of 25 mg/kg total body weight was administered intravenously and Cmax was measured 30 min after the end of the infusion. Independent predicators of Cmax < 60 mg/L after the first amikacin infusion were identified with mixed-model multivariable analyses. Various dosing simulations were performed to assess the probability of reaching 60 mg/L < Cmax < 80 mg/L.
A total of 106 patients on venoarterial ECMO (VA-ECMO) (68%) or venovenous-ECMO (32%) were included. At inclusion, their median (1st; 3rd quartile) Sequential Organ-Failure Assessment score was 15 (12; 18) and 54 patients (51%) were on renal replacement therapy. Overall ICU mortality was 54%. Cmax was < 60 mg/L in 41 patients (39%). Independent risk factors for amikacin under-dosing were body mass index (BMI) < 22 kg/m2 and a positive 24-h fluid balance. Using dosing simulation, increasing the amikacin dosing regimen to 30 mg/kg and 35 mg/kg of body weight when the 24-h fluid balance is positive and the BMI is ≥ 22 kg/m2 or < 22 kg/m2 (Table 3), respectively, would have potentially led to the therapeutic target being reached in 42% of patients while reducing under-dosing to 23% of patients.
ECMO-treated patients were under-dosed for amikacin in one third of cases. Increasing the dose to 35 mg/kg of body weight in low-BMI patients and those with positive 24-h fluid balance on ECMO to reach adequate targeted concentrations should be investigated.
Une revue sur la douleur chronique post-opératoire :
Persistent Postsurgical Pain: Pathophysiology and Preventative Pharmacologic Considerations
Anesthesiology 9 2018, Vol.129, 590-607. doi:10.1097/ALN.0000000000002238
The development of chronic pain is considered a major complication after surgery. Basic science research in animal models helps us understand the transition from acute to chronic pain by identifying the numerous molecular and cellular changes that occur in the peripheral and central nervous systems. It is now well recognized that inflammation and nerve injury lead to long-term synaptic plasticity that amplifies and also maintains pain signaling, a phenomenon referred to as pain sensitization. In the context of surgery in humans, pain sensitization is both responsible for an increase in postoperative pain via the expression of wound hyperalgesia and considered a critical factor for the development of persistent postsurgical pain. Using specific drugs that block the processes of pain sensitization reduces postoperative pain and prevents the development of persistent postoperative pain. This narrative review of the literature describes clinical investigations evaluating different preventative pharmacologic strategies that are routinely used by anesthesiologists in their daily clinical practices for preventing persistent postoperative pain. Nevertheless, further efforts are needed in both basic and clinical science research to identify preclinical models and novel therapeutics targets. There remains a need for more patient numbers in clinical research, for more reliable data, and for the development of the safest and the most effective strategies to limit the incidence of persistent postoperative pain.
Prise en charge hémodynamique précoce des grands brulés
Early Hemodynamic Management of Critically Ill Burn Patients
Anesthesiology 9 2018, Vol.129, 583-589. doi:10.1097/ALN.0000000000002314
Burn injury is associated with early profound hypovolemia followed by a systemic inflammatory response with a subsequent hyperdynamic state.1 Hemodynamic management has long been identified as a key factor impacting burn patients’ prognosis.2 Because both under- and over-resuscitation may potentially negatively impact outcome, anesthesiologists and intensivists caring for burn patients will have to face the challenge of fluid balance in these patients.3,4 The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the hemodynamic consequences of burn injury and to propose strategies for the initial hemodynamic management of severe burn patients using the available evidence-based medicine combined with a physiologic approach.
Bloc ilio-fascial pour la chirurgie arthroscopique de la hanche : Gain analgésique et/ou risque de chute ?
Preoperative Fascia Iliaca Block Does Not Improve Analgesia after Arthroscopic Hip Surgery, but Causes Quadriceps Muscles Weakness: A Randomized, Double-blind Trial
Anesthesiology 9 2018, Vol.129, 536-543. doi:10.1097/ALN.0000000000002321
What We Already Know about This Topic:
Hip arthroscopy is a surgical procedure growing in popularity
The optimal approach to postoperative analgesia has not been identified
What This Article Tells Us That Is New:
The addition of preoperative fascia iliaca block using ropivacaine to the intraarticular injection of ropivacaine did not improve early postoperative pain scores
The fascia iliaca blocks also did not improve most secondary endpoints, although they did cause quadriceps weakness
Background: Ambulatory hip arthroscopy is associated with postoperative pain routinely requiring opioid analgesia. The potential role of peripheral nerve blocks for pain control after hip arthroscopy is controversial. This trial investigated whether a preoperative fascia iliaca block improves postoperative analgesia.
Methods: In a prospective, double-blinded trial, 80 patients scheduled for hip arthroscopy were randomized to receive a preoperative fascia iliaca block with 40 ml ropivacaine 0.2% or saline. Patients also received an intraarticular injection of 10-ml ropivacaine 0.2% at procedure end. Primary study endpoint was highest pain score reported in the recovery room; other study endpoints were pain scores and opioid use 24 h after surgery. Additionally, quadriceps strength was measured to identify leg weakness.
Results: The analysis included 78 patients. Highest pain scores in the recovery room were similar in the block group (6 ± 2) versus placebo group (7 ± 2), difference: −0.2 (95% CI, −1.1 to 0.7), as was opioid use (intravenous morphine equivalent dose: 15 ± 7mg [block] vs. 16 ± 9 mg [placebo]). Once discharged home, patients experienced similar pain and opioid use (13 ± 7 mg [block] vs. 12 ± 8 mg [placebo]) in the 24 h after surgery. The fascia iliaca block resulted in noticeable quadriceps weakness. There were four postoperative falls in the block group versus one fall in the placebo group.
Conclusions: Preoperative fascia iliaca blockade in addition to intraarticular local anesthetic injection did not improve pain control after hip arthroscopy but did result in quadriceps weakness, which may contribute to an increased fall risk. Routine use of this block cannot be recommended in this patient population.
Une hypotension, même modérée, pendant plus de 10min est associée à un risqué d’AVC ischémique en chirurgie cardiaque
Defining an Intraoperative Hypotension Threshold in Association with Stroke in Cardiac Surgery
Anesthesiology 9 2018, Vol.129, 440-447. doi:10.1097/ALN.0000000000002298
What We Already Know about This Topic:
Ischemic stroke after cardiac surgery is a devastating complication affecting approximately 2% of patients
The relationship between hypotension occurring before, during, and after cardiopulmonary bypass and stroke remains unclear
What This Article Tells Us That Is New:
Mean arterial pressure less than 65 mmHg for 10 or more min during cardiopulmonary bypass is associated with an increased risk of stroke
Even mild relative hypotension, defined as a less than 10% decrease from preinduction baseline during bypass, was also associated with an increased risk of stroke
Background: Stroke is a leading cause of morbidity, mortality, and disability in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Identifying modifiable perioperative stroke risk factors may lead to improved patient outcomes. The association between the severity and duration of intraoperative hypotension and postoperative stroke in patients undergoing cardiac surgery was evaluated.
Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted of adult patients who underwent cardiac surgery requiring cardiopulmonary bypass at a tertiary center between November 1, 2009, and March 31, 2015. The primary outcome was postoperative ischemic stroke. Intraoperative hypotension was defined as the number of minutes spent within mean arterial pressure bands of less than 55, 55 to 64, and 65 to 74 mmHg before, during, and after cardiopulmonary bypass. The association between stroke and hypotension was examined by using logistic regression with propensity score adjustment.
Results: Among the 7,457 patients included in this analysis, 111 (1.5%) had a confirmed postoperative diagnosis of stroke. Stroke was strongly associated with sustained mean arterial pressure of less than 64 mmHg during cardiopulmonary bypass (adjusted odds ratio 1.13; 95% CI, 1.05 to 1.21 for every 10 min of mean arterial pressure between 55 and 64 mmHg; adjusted odds ratio 1.16; 95% CI, 1.08 to 1.23 for every 10 min of mean arterial pressure less than 55 mmHg). Other factors that were independently associated with stroke were older age, hypertension, combined coronary artery bypass graft/valve surgery, emergent operative status, prolonged cardiopulmonary bypass duration, and postoperative new-onset atrial fibrillation.
Conclusions: Hypotension is a potentially modifiable risk factor for perioperative stroke. The study’s findings suggest that mean arterial pressure may be an important intraoperative therapeutic hemodynamic target to reduce the incidence of stroke in patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass.